Flashcards in Moray (1959) Deck (14)
What is the 'Cocktail Party Effect'?
A party where people stand around having conversations and drinking cocktails - people at these parties are very skilled at tuning in to one voice or conversation.
What is a dichotic listening task?
When two different auditory stimuli are presented into each ear through headphones.
What are the main aims of Moray's study?
To see if people shadowing one task could recall anything from the rejected task in the other ear.
What is meant by shadowing in terms of a dichotic listening task?
When you're listening to two different stimuli, you shadow one of the stimuli by tuning into it and listening to it.
Outline the sample of the 3 experiments in Moray's study.
-Did not provide sample size for experiment 1
-12 participants in experiment 2
-2 groups of 14 participants in experiment 3 (28)
What was the loudness of each message in the participants ears and what was the speech rate?
Approximately 60db above the participant's hearing threshold and the speech rate was about 150 words per minute.
What was the procedure for experiment 1?
-Short list of words spoken 35 times as rejected message
-At the end of shadowing, participant asked to recall anything from the rejected message
-30 seconds later participants given recognition test of 21 words - 7 from shadowed passage, 7 from rejected and 7 random
What were the findings from experiment 1?
-7 words taken from shadowed passage - average of 4.9/7
-7 words taken from rejected message - average of 1.9/7
-7 words similar but random - average 2.6/7
What are the conclusions of experiment 1?
When someone directs their attention to one thing, almost none of the 'rejected' message can be recalled.
What was the procedure for experiment 2?
-2 passages of light fiction in each ear - instructions at start to listen to right ear and make no mistakes
-Participants name mentioned 3 times out of 10 passages - 36 affective cues (12 participants x 3)
-Counted number of times participants heard the instructions
What were the findings from experiment 2?
-When name was mentioned, participants heard instructions 20/39 times
-When name was not mentioned, participants heard instructions 4/36 times
What are the conclusions of experiment 2?
That participants are more likely to hear something if something of relevance is said such as a name - breaks through 'the block'
What was the procedure for experiment 3?
-Numbers put into the message towards the end -sometimes numbers were in both messages, sometimes in shadowed, sometimes in rejected
-IV was the group - 1 group told at start they would be asked about shadowed message, 1 group told to remember as many numbers heard as possible