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Latin: An Intensive Introduction > Morphology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Morphology Deck (377)
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1

First Declension Noun

-a, -ae, -ae, am, -ā
-ae, ārum, īs, ās, īs

2

Second Declension Masculine Nouns

-us (—), -ī, -ō, -um, -ō
-ī, -ōrum, -īs, ōs, -īs

3

Second Declension Neuter Nouns

-um, -ī, -ō, -um, -ō
-a, -ōrum, -īs, a, -īs

4

Third Declension Nouns: Masculine and Feminine

­­—­­, -is, -ī, -em, -e
-ēs, -um (-ium), -ibus, -ēs (-īs), -ibus

5

Third Declension Nouns: Neuter

—, -is, -ī, —, -e (-ī)
-a (-ia), -um (-ium), -ibus, -a (-ia), -ibus

6

Third Declension Nouns: Irregular vīs

vīs, --, --, vim, vī
vīrēs, vīrium, vīribus, vīrēs (vīrīs), vīribus

7

Fourth Declension Nouns: Masculine and Feminine

-us, -ūs, -uī, -um, -ū
-ūs, -uum, -ibus, -ūs, -ibus


8

Fourth Declension Nouns: Neuter

-ū, -ūs, -ū, -ū, -ū
-ua, -uum, -ibus, -ua, -ibus

9

Fifth Declension Nouns

-ēs, -eī (-ēī), -eī (-ēī), -em, -ē
-ēs, -ērum, -ēbus, -ēs, -ēbus

10

First/Second Declension Adjectives

-us (—), -ī, -ō, -um, -ō
-ī, -ōrum, -īs, ōs, -īs

-a, -ae, -ae, am, -ā
-ae, ārum, īs, ās, īs

-um, -ī, -ō, -um, -ō
-a, -ōrum, -īs, a, -īs


11

Adjectives with Genitive Singular in -īus

There is a group of adjectives which are like first-second declension adjectives except that they have -īus in the genitive singular of all genders and -ī in the dative singular:

tōtus, tōtīus, tōtī, tōtum, tōtō
tōtī, tōtōrum, tōtīs, tōtōs, tōtīs

tōta, tōtīus, tōtī, tōtam, tōtā
tōtae, tōtārum, tōtīs, tōtās, tōtīs

tōtum, tōtīus, tōtī, tōtum, tōtō
tōta, tōtōrum, tōtīs, tōta, tōtīs

alius, alterīus, aliī, alium, aliō
aliī, aliōrum, aliīs, aliōs, aliīs

alia, alterīus, aliī, aliam, aliā
aliae, aliārum, aliīs, aliās, aliīs

aliud, alterīus, aliī, aliud, aliō
alia, aliōrum, aliīs, alia, aliīs

*The genitive of alter is generally used for the genitive of alius in order to avoid confusion between alius (nominative) and alīus (genitive).

All the adjectives of this class are the following, which can be remembered with the acronym UNUS NAUTA:

  1. ūnus, -a, -um (one, alone)
  2. nūllus, -a, -um (no, none)
  3. ūllus, -a, -um (any)
  4. sōlus, -a, -um (only)
     
  5. neuter, neutra, neutrum (neither)
  6. alter, altera, alterum (the other [of two])
  7. uter, utra, utrum (which [of two])
  8. tōtus, -a, -um (whole, all)
  9. alius, -a, -ud (other)

12

Third Declension Adjectives (Three Endings)

ācer, ācris, ācrī, ācrem, ācrī
ācrēs, ācrium, ācribus, ācrēs(-īs), ācribus

ācris, ācris, ācrī, ācrem, ācrī
ācrēs, ācrium, ācribus, ācrēs(-īs), ācribus

ācre, ācris, ācrī, ācre, ācrī
ācria, ācrium, ācribus, ācria, ācribus

13

Third Declension Adjectives (Two Endings)

omnis, omnis, omnī, omnem, omnī
omnēs, omnium, omnibus, omnēs(-īs), omnibus

omne, omnis, omnī, omne, omnī
omnia, omnium, omnibus, omnia, omnibus

14

Third Declension Adjectives (One Ending)

ingēns, ingentis, ingentī, ingentem/ingēns (neut.), ingentī
ingentēs/ingentia (neut.), ingentium, ingentibus, ingentēs(-īs)/ingentia (neut.), ingentibus

15

Comparative Degree of Adjectives

fortior, fortiōris, fortiōrī, fortiōrem, fortiōre(-ī)
fortiōrēs, fortiōrum, fortiōribus, fortiōrēs(-īs), fortiōribus

fortius, fortiōris, fortiōrī, fortius, fortiōre(-ī)
fortiōra, fortiōrum, fortiōribus, fortiōra, fortiōribus

16

Superlative Degree of Adjectives

  1. Most adjectives form the superlative by adding -issimus, -a, -um to the stem of the positive form. These are declined like first-second declension adjectives.
  2. Adjectives which end in -er in the masculine nominative singular of the positive degree form the superlative by adding -rimus, -a, -um directly to the masculine form.
  3. Six adjectives which end in -lis in the masculine and feminine nominative singular of the positive degree form the superlative by adding -limus, -a, -um to the stem of the positive degree. These adjectives are:
    1. facilis, -e (easy)
    2. difficilis, -e (difficult)
    3. similis, -e (similar)
    4. dissimilis, -e (unlike)
    5. gracilis, -e (slender)
    6. humilis, -e (humble, low)

17

Irregular Comparisons of Adjectives

bonus, -a, -um (good)
melior, melius (better)
optimus, -a, -um (best)

malus, -a, -um (bad)
peior, peius (worse)
pessimus, -a, -um (worst)

magnus, -a, -um (great)
maior, maius (greater)
maximus, -a, -um (greatest)

parvus, -a, -um (small)
minor, minus (smaller)
minimus, -a, -um (smallest)

multus, -a, -um (much)
plūs (N. only in sing.; pl.: plūrēs, plūra) (more)
plūrimus, -a, -um (most, very many)

18

The Formation of Adverbs

Most adverbs are formed from adjectives. Two of the more frequent formations of the positive degree are noted below:

  1. From adjectives of the first and second declensions, adverbs are frequently formed by adding the ending -ē to the stem of the adjective.
  2. Adverbs formed from adjectives of the third declension frequently exhibit the ending -iter.

There is no way to determine that a given adverb will not be formed according to these rules.

19

Comparative Degree of Adverbs

The comparative degree of an adverb is formed by adding the ending -ius to the stem of the positive degree of the adjective. It will be noted that the comparative is really the neuter accusative singular of the comparative of the adjective.

20

Superlative Degree of Adverbs

The superlative is formed with the ending -issimē (or -rimē, -limē when the adjective would be thus formed) added to the stem of the positive degree of the adjective.

21

Irregular Comparison of Adverbs

bene (well)
melius (better)
optimē (best)

male (badly)
peius (worse)
pessimē (worst)

magnopere (greatly)
magis (more)
maximē (most, especially)

parum (not enough)
minus (less)
minimē (least)

multum (much)
plūs (more)
plūrimum (most)

diū (long [in time], for a long time)
diūtius (longer)
diūtissimē (longest)

saepe (often)
saepius (more often)
saepissimē (very often)

--
prius (before)
prīmum (first)

prope (near)
propius (nearer)
proximē (nearest, next)

22

Emphatic Demonstrative Adjectives: hic, haec, hoc ("this")

hic, huius, huic, hunc, hōc
hī, hōrum, hīs, hōs, hīs

haec, huius, huic, hanc, hāc
hae, hārum, hīs, hās, hīs

hoc, huius, huic, hoc, hōc
haec, hōrum, hīs, haec, hīs

23

Emphatic Demonstrative Adjectives: ille, illa, illud ("that")

ille, illīus, illī, illum, illō
illī, illōrum, illīs, illōs, illīs

illa, illīus, illī, illam, illā
illae, illārum, illīs, illās, illīs

illud, illīus, illī, illud, illō
illa, illōrum, illīs, illa, illīs

24

The Intensive Adjective: ipse, ipsa, ipsum ("self, very")

ipse, ipsīus, ipsī, ipsum, ipsō
ipsī, ipsōrum, ipsīs, ipsōs, ipsīs

ipsa, ipsīus, ipsī, ipsam, ipsā
ipsae, ipsārum, ipsīs, ipsās, ipsīs

ipsum, ipsīus, ipsī, ipsum, ipsō
ipsa, ipsōrum, ipsīs, ipsa, ipsīs

25

The Demonstrative Adjective: iste, ista, istud ("that [of yours]")

iste, istīus, istī, istum, istō
istī, istōrum, istīs, istōs, istīs

ista, istīus, istī, istam, istā
istae, istārum, istīs, istās, istīs

istud, istīus, istī, istud, istō
ista, istōrum, istīs, ista, istīs

26

Unemphatic Demonstrative Adjectives: is, ea, id ("this" or "that")

is, eius, eī, eum, eō
eī/iī, eōrum, eīs/iīs, eōs, eīs/iīs

ea, eius, eī, eam, eā
eae, eārum, eīs/iīs, eās, eīs/iīs

id, eius, eī, id, eō
ea, eōrum, eīs/iīs, ea, eīs/iīs

27

The Adjective īdem, eadem, idem ("same")

īdem, eiusdem, eīdem, eundem, eōdem
eīdem (īdem), eōrundem, eīsdem (īsdem), eōsdem, eīsdem (īsdem)

eadem, eiusdem, eīdem, eandem, eādem
eaedem, eārundem, eīsdem (īsdem), eāsdem, eīsdem (īsdem)

idem, eiusdem, eīdem, idem, eōdem
eadem, eōrundem, eīsdem (īsdem), eadem, eīsdem (īsdem)

28

Relative Pronoun/Interrogative Adjective

quī, cuius, cui, quem, quō
quī, quōrum, quibus, quōs, quibus

quae, cuius, cui, quam, quā
quae, quārum, quibus, quās, quibus

quod, cuius, cui, quod, quō
quae, quōrum, quibus, quae, quibus

29

First Person Pronoun

ego, meī, mihi, mē, mē
nōs, nostrum (partitive)/nostrī (objective), nōbīs, nōs, nōbīs

30

Second Person Pronoun

tū, tuī, tibi, tē, tē
vōs, vestrum (partitive)/vestrī (objective), vōbīs, vōs, vōbīs