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Flashcards in Motivation And Emotion Deck (57):
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Motivation

A need which drives behavior

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Instinct theories

Postulates the existence of innate, unconscious drives

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Fixed action patterns

Typically non-human, innate, species related behavior, ex: mating, migrating

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Psychoanalytic theory

Developed by Sigmund Freud, influenced by Darwin, view humans as being part of the animal kingdom, apply innate unconscious drives and instincts to human behavior, everything depended on pleasure

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Evolutionary Psychology

A particular way of thinking about any topic in Psychology
Based upon evolutionary biology: mind is merely information processing machine, designed by natural selection, governed by adaption

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Drive-Reduction (Homeostatic theory)

Drives exist: drived by needs, we lack something, physical and social needs, result in behavior reduction to stop tension

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Negative feedback

Behaviors which reduce tension are repeated, behaviors which create tension are avoided

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Incentive theory

Deals with primary and secondary needs
Primary needs push us to certain behaviors: food, shelter, sex
Secondary, external needs invite us to certain behaviors: rewards, recognition

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Arousal theory

Postulates the existence of an inner state of alertness, relative to each person, facts performance

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Optimum arousal

A relative ideal level of alertness or emotional arousal, peak performance

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Hermes-Dodson law

Inverted u hypothesis
an index which graphs the relationship levels or arousal and performance
Different tasks require different levels of arousal for optimum performance

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Maslow's Hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow
Basic needs, safety needs, love, self esteem, self actualization

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Hunger

Need for food and water that drives behavior

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Biology of hunger

Hypothalamus

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Lateral hypothalamus

Tells body your hungry

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Ventral medial hypothalamus

Tells body Sense of fullness by releasing orexin

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Glucose

Levels blood sugar level, lack of creates hunger

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Insulin

Hormone, released by pancreas, metabolizes glucose

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Glucagon

Converts stored energy to glucose

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Approach approach

Pizza vs hunger

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Approach avoidance

Movie vs hw

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Avoidance avoidance

Trash vs dishes

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Multiple approach avoidance

Multiple positive and negative options

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Cholecystokinin CCK

Hormone and neurotransmitter, facets small intestines, promotes sense of fullness

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Orexin

Released lateral hypothalamus, triggers hunger

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Leptin

Released by fat tissues, signals hypothalamus to stop storage of fat

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Set point

Suppose innate weight range, determined by number of fat cells, changes with time & bmr

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BMR

Basal metabolic rate, natural rate of calorie expenditure when doing nothing

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Thirst

Dehydration
Low blood volume

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Pain

Physical discomfort
Motivates avoidance behaviors

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Kinsey report

Alfred Kinsey
Researcher of sexual behaviors
Highly controversial
0-7

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Masters and Johnson

Researches of human sexual responses
Sexual response cycle: arousal, plateau, orgasm, resolution (contains refractory period for men)

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Female hormones

Estrogen: development of female organs, secondary sex characteristics, fertility cycle
Progesterone

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Men hormones

Testosterone: development of male sex organs, secondary characteristics
Oryxion

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Sexual orientation

Inflation of an individual's sexual interest

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Heterosexual

Desire for opposite sex

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Homosexual

Desire for same sex

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Bi- sexual

Desire for both sexes

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Intrinsic motivation

Drive based upon enjoyment or interest

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Extrinsic motivation

Drive based upon external rewards or punishment

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Affiliation

Need to belong

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Achievement

Need to fulfill a job or task
Individual: achievement for ones own sake
Collective: achievement for the sake of the community

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Over justification effect

The result of being rewarded for behavior that we already like doing

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Evolution army theory

Emociones adapt to survive
Snake-sweat-scared

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Schachter-singer (2 factor theory)

Biological arousal and cognitive appraisal
Snake : sweating: think we're afraid

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Spillover effect

Influences: How intense the emotions are
How we interpret

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Cannon-Bard theory

Snake: sweating: cognitive (cortex)
Emotional (LIMBIC)
Simotaniously experience arousal and conscious awareness

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Emotional expression

Facial expression
voice tone
Body language

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Paul ekman

College American psychologist
Creates Emotions - facial expression

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Autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic nervous system: activates physical arousal
Parasympathetic nervous system: homeostasis

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LIMBIC system

Hippocampus: long term memory
Hypothalamus: basic drive: hunger sex thirst
Amygdala: fear and aggression

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Facial feedback effect

Expression impacts emotion
Body language happy: happier

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James Lange theory

William James and Carl Lang
3 factors: external stimuli
Psychological arousal
interpretation of arousal as emotion
"We feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble"

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Paul ekmans universal facial expressions

Happy
Sadness
Surprise
Fear
Anger
Disgust
Contempt

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Malingering

pretending to have an illness to avoid consequences

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Factitious

Pretending illness to gain attention

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Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome

Adaptive response 3 stages:
Alarm reaction: sympathetic activates because of a stressor
Resistance: harmonic state of sympathetic arousal
Exhaustion: health risks to chronic stress response, immunodeficiency