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Metaphysics

deals with the question "what is reality?" Using the medium of human existence, we incorporate material & immaterial reality we tell

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Materialism

Psychology about our physical experience & physical make up of reality

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Cosmologists

A group of pre Socratic philosophers who speculated upon the physical make-up of reality

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Thales

Type that the universe is made up of some kind of water
METAPHYSICS

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Heraclitus

Universe is made up of fire/energy
Then applies this dynamics of energy to the human psyche (mind, body)
Energy is ever changing and dies except God who is eternal fire
METAPHYSICS

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Pythagorus

Philosophy based in math
Geometric forms and patterns are base of universe
Blend of material and immaterial view
METAPHYSICS

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Democritus

Taught only material was real and made of atoms
What we sense is each others atoms
Although secondary qualities such as color and sound are mental concepts not the nature of things in themselves
METAPHYSICS

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Idealism

Immaterial, a focus upon spiritual or mental reality including psyche

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Protagous

Developed science of grammar
A skeptic regarding existence of ultimate truths
"Man is the measure of all things" reality is what we think it is
Idealist

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Plato

Disciple of Socrates
Dualist( opposing realities: material world {object of physical senses} immaterial: {subject of reason}
Idealist

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Dualist

opposing realities: material world {object of physical senses} immaterial: {subject of reason}
Polar entities: a material body (soma) & senses to immaterial (psyche) and reason
Psyche is 3 pts and is eternal
Idealist

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Aristotle

Disciple of Plato
Monist
Idealist

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Monistic

Material & immaterial complementary realities
Vs Plato: material reality must first be apprehended by our physical senses in order to come to understand (reason) anything
Idealist

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Rene Descartes

Philosopher (1595-1650) addressed the mind-body dualism
Idealist
Reason I think therefore I am
Conscious awareness

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Epistemology

What is knowledge or truth? What do I know? How do I know?
Way come to know something

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Rationalism

Knowledge comes from Clear reason
Eternal ideas: beauty, truth, virtue, math
Liked by Plato
Dualism distinguishes reason, the source of truth, from physical, sensory experience, the source of opinion
Aristotle- reason & experience necessary

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Empiricism

All knowledge through experience

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John lock

Father of empiricism, tabula rasa: mind is a blank slate at birth

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Nature vs nurture

Are we of innate(natural'inborn) factors or environmental factors

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Free will vs determinism

Do we choose or behavior and are responsible or are we driven by factors(internal, external) beyond our control?

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Introspection

Technique by Edward Tichener in 1800s in Germany
Individuals Inspect and record elemental thoughts and feelings

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Edward Tichener

Created introspection in late 1800s in germany

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Structuralism

School of psychological thought, associated with Wilhelm Wundt & Tichener focused upon the structural elements of the mind in an attempt to understand human behavior
Pts of mental experience are the key to understanding the whole

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Functionalism

School of psychological thought, William James, influenced by Charles Darwin, focused on adaptive behavior of human animal, unlike Structuralism, The whole, or adaptive, functional outcomes provide more insight into human thought and behavior then a mere understanding of the parts

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Behaviorism

Approach to psychology which focused upon observable behaviour versus mental states, incorporates the insides of Ivan Pavlov who introduced classical conditioning. Classical conditioning was refined by American psychologist John Watson founder of behaviorism BF Skinner developed Operant Learning approach to behaviourism

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Psychoanalysis

Approach to psychology developed exclusively by Sigmund Freud
Emphasized the dynamics of the unconscious as determinants of human thought and behavior

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Humanistic psychology

Approach which emphasized the importance of human potential for growth and self actualization
Free will, the ability to choose vs determinism, is essential to human growth
Pioneers of approach: Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Victor Frankl

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Bio psychology

Approach which studies the relationship between the mind/body & behavior
Includes neuropsychology, neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience and behavioral genetics

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Cognitive psychology

Approach which studies memory, intelligence, problem solving, and creativity, and language
Incorporates a variety of other approaches, including memory, intelligence and language
Pioneers: Herman Ebbinghaus(memory), Albert Binet(intelligence), and Noam Chomsky(language)

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Socio-cultural psychology

Approach which studies environmental and group dynamics within different societies and cultures and the impact upon individual thought and behavior

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Clinical

Asses and treats people with psychological disorders
I spicules psychologist and psychiatrists

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Counseling

Primarily treats people with "less severe" metal- emotional issues not found in the DSMs
Includes sub fields of school and industrial organizational psychology

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Educational

Works in educational settings
Addresses learning and teaching issues

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Experimental

Conducts basic and applied research
Addresses understanding learning and teaching issues

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Industrial organizational

Puppies the principles of psychology to the workplace
Addresses personal issues, both work and personal related
Sometimes involved in marketing techniques

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Forensic

Applies the principles of psychology to the workplace
Addresses personnel issues, both work and personal related
Sometimes involved in marketing techniques

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Wilhelm Tichener

German scientist (1832-1920)
Conducted psychological experiments at the university of Leipzig which dealt with the conscious perception of stimuli, student Edward tichner used introspection, emphasized elemental and structural view of the human mind, considered the father of modern psychology

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Charles Darwin

(1809-1882) British naturalist, noted for theory of evolution, natural selection, and adaption, theory of animal man leaves an indelible, enduring and transformation influence upon science in general and psychology in particular

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William James

Harvard professor
Influenced by Darwin's principles of natural selection & adaption, which James applied to human consciousness, focused upon the humans minds functional dynamic to adapt to its environment, which is an evolutionary process, called his theory FUNCTIONALISM considered father of American psychology (1842-1910)

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Stanley hall

Student of William James (1844-1924) conducted the first psychological experiments in America, first president of the American Psychological Association

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Mary Whiton Calkins

Student of William James, famous being denied PhD at Harvard because of her gender, established lab and conducted psychological experiments at Wellesley College
First female president of American Psychological Association (1863-1930)

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Margaret Floyd Washburn

(1871-1949) first female to earn a PhDs in psychology noted for her research in comparative (animal) research