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Flashcards in Motor Control and Motor Learning Deck (26)
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What is motor control?

area of study understanding the neural, physical, and behavioral aspects of biological movement.


Explain the model of information-processing stages of movement control. (catching a ball example)

- stimulus
- identify stimulus --> select response --> program response
- movement output


What is a motor program?

an abstract (a thought) representation that, when initiated, results in the production of a coordinated movement sequence.


What is feedforward control?

- anticipatory
- sending signal(s) in advance of movement to ready system for incoming sensory feedback or future motor control.


What is feedback?

- response-produced sensory information received during or after movement.
- used to monitor movement for output for corrective actions.


What theory of motor control is currently accepted as most accurate?

- systems theory


What is the systems theory of motor control?

Distributed model of control (shifting center of control)
- various brain and spinal centers work cooperatively to meet demands of body.
- both internal and external factors are taken into consideration when planning movements.
Degrees of freedom
- separate, independent dimension of movement


Does open or closed loop systems run without the influence of peripheral feedback or error detection?

- open looped system


Which looped system is essential for ongoing maintenance of body posture and balance?

- closed loop system


Which looped system plays a critical role in learning a new motor skill and/or correction of ongoing movements?

- closed loop system


In generalized motor programs what are the unique features of stored code(s)?

- invariant characteristics: force, timing, order


In generalized motor programs what are the parameters?

- changeable features


What are muscle synergies?

- used to simplify control
- reduce/constrain degrees of freedom
- to initiate coordinated patterns of movement


What part of the brain controls synergies?

- cerebellum


What is a synergy?

- functionally linked muscle act together to produce intended motor action.
- can act in isolation
- most common to combine for functional tasks.


Define motor learning?

- a set of internal processes associated with practice and experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for motor skills.


As a PT how are you able to determine if your treatments are making an impact and changing your patients CNS?

- you will observe changes in your patients motor behavior


What is the best measure of learning?

- retention
- defined as the ability of the learner to demonstrate skill over time and after a period of no practice.


What is termed as the ability to refine a learned skill to changing task and environmental demands?

- adaptability


Motor learning is the direct result of ________ and is highly dependent on _______ information and ________ processes.

- practice; sensory; feedback


Currently accepted theory of motor learning is?

- schema theory


What is the schema theory of motor learning?

Has two parts:
- recall schema (motor program) used to select and define past parameters/conditions/outcomes
- recognition schema (sensory) used to evaluate movement responses


We learn skills by learning rules about the ___________ of our bodies - forming _____________ between how our muscles are activated, what they actually do, and how these actions feel.

- functioning; relationships


What training strategies for feedback, practice, and environment do you want to use when your patient is in the cognitive stage of motor learning?

- use intact sensory systems, use visuals, and use praise for correct performance when giving feedback.
- use block or repeated practice of same task, mental practice.
- structure environment to reduce distractions to ensure attention.


How will you apply feedback, practice, and environment training strategies when your patient is in the associated stage of motor learning?

- feedback when errors are consistent, emphasize proprioceptive feedback "feel the movement"
- create a variable practice order and encourage consistency in performance.
- progress toward more open, changing environments.


How will you apply feedback, practice, and environment training strategies when your patient is in the autonomous stage of motor learning?

- provide occasional feedback when errors are evident
- high levels (massed) of practice.
- challenge learner with varied environments to ready for home, work, or community.