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Flashcards in motor control part 2 Deck (42)
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1

which basal ganglia circuit plays a major role in cognitive control of motor activity?

caudate circuit

2

which basal ganglia circuit plays a role in subconscious execution of learned patterns of movement

putamen circuit

3

which area acts as a comparator, comparing intention with actual motor performance and can effect the cerebellum via climbing fiber input?

inferior olivary nucleus

4

what are the major inhibitory cells in the cerebellar cortex?

purkinje cells

5

strong stimulation of 1 climbing fiber would elicit what response?

complex action potential of 1 or few purkinje cells

6

strong stimulation of 1 mossy fiber would elicit what response?

simple action potential of 100s of thousands of purkinje cells

7

spontaneous and continuous writhing movements would be associated with a lesion in which area?

globus pallidus

8

a patient presents with a resting tremor, lead pipe rigidity in the extremities. voluntary movements are accurate but slow, where is there likely to be a lesion?

basal ganglia- substantia nigra

9

what is the cerebellar hemispheric circuit?

cortico ponto cerebello rubro thalamo corticospinal

10

patient presents with ataxia, unable to perform rapid alternating movements and unable to check movements of right arm. where is lesion most likely?

right side of cerebellum

11

cerebellar lesions create what type of finding due to double crossing?

ipsilateral- rebound

12

what symptoms are seen with a cerebellar lesion?

disruption of coordination, limb and eye movements
impaired balance
decreased muscle tone

13

the ventral spinocerebellar tract gains access to the cerebellum primarily via which peduncle?

intermediate/ middle

14

what does the floculonodular lobe/ vestibulocerebellum do?

governs eye movement and body equilibrium

15

what does the spinocerebellum do?

initiates movement
influences descending motor systems

16

the cerebrocerebellum/ lateral zone does what?

planning and initiation of movement and extra motor prediction
mental rehearsal of complex motor actions
conscious assessment of movement errors

17

if you administer yohimbine (alpha 2 receptor blocker) and then stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, what effect do you expect on the amount of norepinephrine released?

increase

18

what inhibits norepinephrine release?

norepinephrine inhibits itself

19

mass SNS discharge involves?

– Increase in arterial pressure
– decreased blood flow to inactive organs/tissues
– increase rate of cellular metabolism
– increased blood glucose metabolism
– increased glycolysis in liver & muscle
– increased muscle strength
– increased mental activity
– increased rate of blood coagulation

20

denervation supersensitivity is associated with what adaptations?

up regulation of receptors by target tissue

21

what is the effect of the SNS stimulation on most vascular smooth muscle?

constriction

22

the adrenal medulla is an extension of the?

SNS system

23

SNS stimulation releases what hormones?

epinephrine and norepinephrine

24

Stimulation of SNS to raise BP to maintain perfusion of CNS is called?

cushing reflex

25

what is ondines curse?

abnormal respiratory patterns

26

the myenteric plexus controls?

gut motility- can coordinate peristalsis in intestinal tract that has been removed from the body

27

myenteric plexus excitatory motor neurons release?

Ach
substance P

28

myenteric plexus inhibitory motor neurons release?

dynorphin
vasoactive intestinal peptide VIP

29

a patient presents with slight ptosis of the left eye, but the right pupil appears dilated compared to the left, they report that left side of face never sweats. thoughts?

interruption of the left sympathetic supply to the face

30

what is the condition with interruption of SNS supply to the head?

horners syndrome

31

in primary cultures of postganglionic SNS neurons, what inhibits release of norepinephrine?

GABA, adenosine, NPY, somatostatin, opiods, PGE, NO, dopamine

32

in primary cultures of postganglionic SNS neurons, what stimulates release of norepinephrine?

ACH, epinephrine, Ang II, corticotropin, PACAP

33

with parasympathetic postganglionic fibers, acetylcholine binds to what?

muscarinic receptor which effects a G protein

34

with SNS postganglionic fibers, norepinephrine binds to what?

alpha or beta receptor which effects a G protein

35

if there is a facilitated spinal segment at T6. what would you expect when 3 kg of pressure is applied to spinous process at T10 which is not in a state of segmental facilitation?

exaggerated response in adjacent paraspinal muscles only at T6

36

When pressure was applied to the spinous processes of normal vertebrae, up to 7 Kg of pressure, what response would be elicited?

minimal response in the adjacent paraspinal muscles

37

the CNS coordinates host defense activity T or F?

true

38

epinephrine has a greater affinity for alpha or beta?

beta

39

norepinephrine has a greater affinity for alpha or beta?

equal affinity for both

40

what are some symptoms of Horner's syndrome?

partial ptosis
pupillary constriction
anhydrosis
enophthamos

41

what does the submucosal plexus regulate?

-ion and water transport across intestinal epithelium
-glandular secretion

42

the submucosal plexus communicates with what and releases what?

communicates with myenteric plexus
releases neuropeptides