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NMS 1 Exam Two > Motor Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Motor Exam Deck (125):
1

upper motor neuron lesions are these kind of injuries (peripheral, central)

central

2

location of UMNL

brain, spinal cord

3

these neuron lesions can be unilateral and bilateral

UMNL

4

these neuron lesions have spastic paralysis (functional nerve)

UMNL

5

lower motor neuron lesions are these kinds of injuries (central, peripheral)

peripheral

6

these neuron lesions are unilateral but affect one to many muscles and sensory regions

LMNL

7

these neuron lesions have flaccid paralysis (non-functional nerve)

LMNL

8

strength testing that has complete paralysis, 0% of normal movement, and no contraction

0/5

9

strength testing that has a twitch of muscle, 0-10% of movement, and can feel muscle action but don't see movement

1/5

10

strength testing that has moderate to severe paresis, active movement can happen when gravity is eliminated, 11-25% of normal movement, patient can move joint through full ROM without gravity

2/5

11

strength testing that has moderate paresis, active movement against gravity, 26-50% of normal movement, and complete ROM against gravity

3/5

12

strength testing that has mild paresis, active movement against gravity and mild resistance, 51-75% of normal movement, usually resistance of 2 fingers

4/5

13

strength testing that has normal strength and 76-100% of normal movement

5/5

14

supraspinatus muscle has this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=C5
peripheral nerve=suprascapular

15

deltoid muscle has this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=C5
peripheral nerve=axillary

16

biceps muscle has this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=C5
peripheral nerve=musculocutaneous

17

brachioradialis muscle has this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=C5
peripheral nerve=radial

18

wrist extensors have this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=C6
peripheral nerve=radial

19

triceps muscle has this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=C7
peripheral nerve=radial

20

wrist flexors have this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=C7
peripheral nerve=median/ulnar

21

finger extensors have this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=C7
peripheral nerve=raidal

22

finger flexors have this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=C8
peripheral nerve=median/ulnar

23

finger abductors have this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=T1
peripheral nerve=ulnar

24

finger adductors have this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=T1
peripheral nerve=ulnar

25

decreased muscle tone means this kind of neuron lesion

LMNL

26

increased muscle tone means this kind of neuron lesion

UMNL

27

hypertonia means

increased muscle tone

28

increased muscular resistance felt by examiner during quick joint movement

spasticity

29

involuntary muscular resistance felt when moving a resting joint and persists as the joint is moved through its entire ROM

rigidity

30

hypotonia means

decreased muscle tone

31

loss of normal neurological function

deficit phenomenon

32

exaggerations or perversions of normal neurological function due to a loss of cortical inhibition

release phenomenon

33

biceps reflex has this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=C5
peripheral nerve=musculocutaneous

34

brachioradialis reflex has this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=C6
peripheral nerve=radial

35

triceps reflex has this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=C7
peripheral nerve=radial

36

finger flexion reflex has this nerve root and peripheral nerve

nerve root=C8
peripheral nerve=median/ulnar

37

grading reflex that's a 0 means

absent reflex

38

grading reflex that's a 1 means

hypoactive reflex

39

grading reflex that's a 2 means

normal reflex

40

grading reflex that's a 3 means

hyperactive reflex

41

grading reflex that's a 4 means

hyperactive reflex with sustained clonus

42

type of reflexes that are motor responses to scraping of the skin

superficial reflexes

43

superficial reflexes are graded as

present or absent

44

superficial reflexes can be abolished by

severe LMNL or destruction of sensory pathways from the skin

45

types of superficial reflexes

gag reflex, corneal blink reflex, epigastric reflex, upper/middle/lower abdominal reflex, cremasteric reflex, gluteal reflex, plantar reflex, anal reflex

46

innervation of gag reflex

CN 9 & 10

47

reflex that has elevation of soft palate, constriction of pharyngeal muscles

gag reflex

48

innervation of corneal blink reflex

CN 5 & 7

49

innervation of epigastric reflex

T5-T7

50

peripheral nerve of epigastric reflex

intercostal nerve

51

innervation of upper abdominal reflex

T7-T9

52

peripheral nerve of upper abdominal reflex

intercostal nerve

53

innervation of middle abdominal reflex

T9-T11

54

peripheral innervation of middle abdominal reflex

intercostal nerve

55

innervation of lower abdominal reflex

T11-T12

56

peripheral innervation of lower abdominal reflex

intercostal, iliohypogatric, ilioinguinal nerves

57

innervation of cremasteric reflex

L1-L2

58

peripheral innervation of cremasteric reflex

ilioinguinal, genitofemoral nerves

59

innervation of gluteal reflex

L4-S2

60

peripheral innervation of gluteal reflex

inferior gluteal nerve

61

innervation of plantar reflex

L4-S2

62

peripheral innervation of plantar reflex

tibial nerve

63

normal response with plantar reflex

plantar flexion of toes and foot

64

abnormal response with plantar reflex

dorsiflexion of big toe and flaring of other toes

65

innervation of anal reflex

S2-S5

66

peripheral innervation of anal reflex

hemorrhoidal

67

superficial or deep reflexes are normally controlled or inhibited by

the motor cortex or pyramidal tracts

68

Hoffman's sign is looking for lesion here

above C5 in corticospinal tract

69

Hoffman's sign abnormal response and what it means

abnormal=flexion of fingers and adduction of thumb
means=UMNL

70

Tromner sign is looking for lesion here

lesion above C5 in corticospinal tract

71

Tromner sign abnormal response and what it means

abnormal=flexion of fingers and adduction of thumb
means=UMNL

72

Rossolimo sign of the foot looking for lesion here

corticospinal tract

73

Rossolimo sign abnormal response and what it means

abnormal=plantar flexion of toes
means=UMNL

74

Babinski sign looking for lesion here

corticospinal tract

75

Babinski sign abnormal response and what it means

abnormal=dorsiflexion of big toe and flaring of other toes
mean=UMNL

76

Chaddock sign looking for lesion here

corticospinal tract

77

Chaddock sign abnormal response and what it means

abnormal=dorsiflexion of big toe and flaring of other toes
mean=UMNL

78

Oppenheim sign looking for lesion here

corticospinal tract

79

Oppenheim sign abnormal and what it means

abnormal=dorsiflexion of big toe and flaring of other toes
mean=UMNL

80

Gordon sign looking for lesion here

corticospinal tract

81

Gordon sign abnormal and what it means

abnormal=dorsiflexion of big toe and flaring of other toes
mean=UMNL

82

Schaefer sign looking for lesion here

corticospinal tract

83

Schaefer sign abnormal and what it means

abnormal=dorsiflexion of big toe and flaring of other toes
mean=UMNL

84

pupillary light reflex segmental level (afferent and efferent)

afferent=CN 2
efferent=CN 3

85

accommodation reflex segmental level

CN 3

86

pupillary light reflex normal response

bilateral pupil constriction

87

accommodation normal response

convergence, constriction, lens thickening

88

ciliospinal reflex segmental level (afferent and efferent)

afferent=cervicals and CN 5
efferent=cervical sympathetics

89

ciliospinal reflex abnormal response and what it means

abnormal=no pupil dilation on side of stimulation
means=cervical sympathetic lesion

90

oculocardiac reflex segmental level (afferent and efferent)

afferent=CN 5
efferent=CN 10

91

oculocardiac reflex normal response

decrease in heart rate and blood pressure

92

carotid sinus reflex segmental level (afferent and efferent)

afferent=CN 9
efferent=CN 10

93

carotid sinus normal response

decrease in heart rate and blood pressure

94

bulbocavernosus reflex segmental level

S3-S4

95

bulbocavernosus reflex normal response

contraction of bulbocavernosus muscle, urethral constriction, contraction of anal sphincter

96

muscle reflex dysfunction causes

reflexes are depressed in parallel to loss of strength

97

peripheral nerve reflex dysfunction causes

reflexes are depressed out of proportion of weakness

98

nerve root reflex dysfunction causes

reflexes are depressed in proportion to the weakness

99

spinal cord and brain stem reflex dysfunction causes

reflexes are hypoactive at the level of the lesion and hyperactive below the lesion

100

cerebellum reflex dysfunction causes

reflexes are hypoactive

101

cerebral cortex reflex dysfunction causes

unilateral disease will produce UMNL pattern on the contralateral side

102

shaking in the fingers due to agonists and antagonists actions

physiological tremor

103

startle reactions and are usually normal occurrences

myoclonic jerks

104

twitches within the muscle often after exercise

benign fasciculations

105

decreased movement seen in depression or Parkinson's

hypokinesia

106

increased movement

hyperkinesia

107

rapid tremor that worsens with volitional movement

emotional tremor

108

hereditary tremor that usually affects the hands

familial tremor

109

hereditary tremor associated with aging

senile tremor

110

"pill rolling" tremor at rest

Parkinsonian tremor

111

tremor that worsens with refined volitional movement

intention tremor

112

tremor that occurs during maintenance of an intentional posure

postural tremor

113

random quick movements simulating fragments of normal movements

nontremorous hyperkinesia

114

slow, writing movements of the fingers and extremities that may come and go

athetosis

115

slow, alternating contraction and relaxation of agonists and antagonists

dystonia

116

violent, flinging movement of half of the body

hemiballismus

117

quick, repetitive movements of the face or extremities associated with stress

tics

118

motor unrest manifested as continual shifting of posture

akathisia

119

tonic or clonic spasms of all or part of the body

epilepsy

120

involuntary movements of the face, mouth, tongue, limbs

tardive dyskinesias

121

gait that is characteristic of posterior column disease

ataxic gait

122

gait that is characteristic of spastic paraplegia

scissors gait

123

gait that is characterized by high knee action and flopping of the feet

steppage gait

124

gait characterized by marked irregularity and unsteadiness associated with vertigo and a tendency to reel to one side

cerebellar gait

125

gait characterized by a forward leaning posture and short shuffling steps slowly at first then becoming more rapid

festinating gait