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NMS 1 Exam Two > Orthopedic Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Orthopedic Exam Deck (47):
1

normal range of cervical flexion

60 degrees

2

normal range of cervical extension

75 degrees

3

normal range of cervical rotation

80 degrees

4

normal range of cervical lateral flexion

45 degrees

5

normal range of thoracic flexion

25-45 degrees

6

normal range of thoracic extension

25-35 degrees

7

normal range of thoracic rotation

35-50 degrees

8

normal range of shoulder flexion

180 degrees

9

normal range of shoulder extension

50 degrees

10

normal range of shoulder abduction

180 degrees

11

normal range of shoulder adduction

50 degrees

12

normal range of shoulder internal and external rotation

90 degrees

13

normal range of elbow flexion

140-150 degrees

14

normal range of elbow extension

0-10 degrees

15

normal range of elbow supination and pronation

90 degrees

16

normal range of wrist flexion

90 degrees

17

normal range of wrist extension

70 degrees

18

normal range of wrist radial deviation

20 degrees

19

normal range of wrist ulnar deviation

55 degrees

20

nonspecific neck pain with radiating symptoms into one arm

cervical radiculopathy

21

neck pain with bilateral upper extremity symptoms

cervical myelopathy

22

best methods for identifying myelopathy

Hoffman's, deep tending reflexes in upper extremity, inverted supinator reflex, suprapatellar quadriceps reflex, hand withdrawal reflex, Babinski sign, clonus of the ankle

23

purpose of Lhermitte's test

to traction the posterior column of the spinal cord

24

findings of Lhermitte's test and what it means

findings=electric shock like sensation radiating down the neck and spine
means=posterior column disease or MS

25

characteristic findings with meningitis

fever, neck stiffness, altered mental state

26

findings of Kernig sign and what it means

with patient lying supine Dr tries to completely extend the leg - if pain prevents it and headache increases then the sign is positive (usually accompanied by involuntary flexion of opposite knee and hip)
means=positive sign means meningitis

27

findings of Brudzinski sign and what it means

with patient lying supine Dr tries to flex patient's head - if headache increases and both knees flex then positive sign
means=positive sign means meningitis

28

purpose of Soto-Hall test

done when suspected fracture of vertebra

29

findings of Soto-Hall test and what they mean

findings=localized dull or sharp pain in the cervical spine that may radiate into thoracic spine
mean=possible fracture

30

purpose of Valsalva's maneuver

tests for presence of space occupying lesion within spinal column that is communicating with spinal cord meninges

31

findings of Valsalva's maneuver and what it means

findings=sharp accentuation of pain at level of lesion
means=space occupying lesion

32

purpose of Dejerine's sign

to determine if there's a space occupying lesion in the cervical area

33

findings of Dejerine's sign and what it means

coughing, sneezing, straining during defecation increase pressure and aggravate symptoms
means=lesion is present such as herniated or protruding disc, spinal cord tumor, spinal compression fracture

34

purpose of swallowing test

to determine if there may be a space occupying lesion, sprain, strain, fracture, disc protrusion, tumor

35

findings of swallowing test and what it means

findings=presence of pain or difficulty swallowing
means=dysphagia is present (something is causing irritation)

36

purpose of Naffzinger's test

to create a pooling of the venous sinuses that will cause increase in cerebral spinal fluid pressure

37

findings of Naffzinger's test and what it means

findings=sharp accentuation of pain at the level of the lesion
mean=there's a lesion present

38

purpose of distraction test

to determine IVF encroachment

39

findings of distraction test and what it means

findings=test is positive in relieving pain in the cervical area
means=IVF encroachment

40

purpose of foraminal compression test

to determine IVF encroachment and nerve root involvement

41

findings of foraminal compression test and what they mean

findings=when the Dr exerts downward pressure on head in neutral position and during bilateral rotation and there's either localized pain or radicular pain
means=localized pain means foraminal encroachment, radicular pain means pressure on the nerve root

42

purpose of Jackson compression test

to determine IVF encroachment and nerve root involvement

43

findings of Jackson compression test and what it means

findings=can have pain on opposite side or on same side
means=if there's pain on opposite side of lateral flexion means muscular strain, pain on the side of lateral flexion means facet or nerve root involvement

44

purpose of maximum cervical compression

to determine IVF encroachment and nerve root involvement

45

findings of maximum cervical compression and what it means

findings=can have pain on opposite side or same side
means=pain on the same side means nerve root or facet involvement, pain on opposite side means muscle strain

46

purpose of spurling's test

to determine IVF encroachment and nerve root involvement

47

findings of spurling's test and what it means

findings=pain
means=IVF encroachment and nerve root involvement