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Flashcards in MR physics Deck (36):
1

What in wheel physics terms is precession?

When you have a wheel with handles through the axle. If you spin the wheel so that the axis is perpendicular to the force of gravity, & then let oneside go, the wheel sort of spins around the axis of the gravitational force. It takes the same amount of time for the wheel to rotate once around the gravity axis. You cant see precession if the wheel axis is parallel to gravity

2

What in wheel terms is resonance?

the movement of torque (finger) follows the precession of the wheel exactly

3

How is torque applied to atomic nuclei?

You have to apply a magnetic field which is orthogonal to the primary field & oscillating at the exact same frequency of the nuclei

4

What is the frequency of precession of 1H?

63.8 MHz at 1T,
127.6 MHz at 3 T
300 MHz at 7T

5

What are the two main parts of relaxation of a proton back to its resting, magnetized state?

Decay of traverse(observable) component T2 and recovery of parallel component T1

6

How is contrast achieved in MRI images?

Different tissues have different relaxation rates.

7

what two processes occur during relaxation of a proton back to it's equilibrium state?

Decay of traverse(observable)component T2 and the recovery of the parallel component (T1)

8

How do you got contrast in an MR image?

Rates of relaxation very for different types of tissue.

9

What is echo time?(TE)

The interval between an RF pulse and data acquisition.

10

In a pulsed MR experiment, what is the repetition time?(TR)

The time between R F pulses (IPI)

11

what three parameters control T1 contrast? what is the main contributor?

TR, Excitation or flip angle

12

What kind of contrast does TE control?

T2contrast

13

which contrast type takes advantage of the decaying traverse component?

T2

14

Which contrast type takes advantage of the recovery o the parallel cmponent?

T1

15

put the following tissues in order from brightest to darkest for short TR imaging:grey matter, fat, CSF, white matter (which recover most rapidly and have the shortest recovery times)?

Fat>white matter>grey matter>CSF

16

Rank tissues from brightest to darkest forT2 imaging (long TE)

CSF>Grey matter>white matter

17

what relative lengths(long or short) of TR and TE give you a proton density image?

Long TR, short TE

18

What lengths of TR and TE give you a T1weighted image?

Short TR and short TE

19

What lengths of TR and TE give you a T2weighted image?

Long TR and long TE

20

What is T1 in math/physics terms

T1 is the time constant which describes the relaxation of the z component (direction of static magnetic field) back to equilibrium(Mo). It is represented mathematically by Mz = Mo(1-e^-t/T1) and is the amount of time it takes to reduce the difference between Mz and Mo by e.

21

What is precession in physics terms?

If the net magnetization is placed in the xy plane (around the z of the static magnetic field), The proton will rotate around the z axis at the frequency of the photon which would cause a transition between the two energy levels of the spin. T

22

What is the larmour frequency?

The rate at which a nucleus/proton precesses after excitation.

23

What is shimming

You can pass current through a coil which can produce gradients in three axes to compensate for inhomogeneities in the static magnetic field.

24

For free induction decay, what change in frequency spectrum is associated with a faster rate of decay?

A faster rate of decay is associated with a broader frequency spectrum and smaller peak

25

What is the area under the fourier transform graph associated with

The area under the fourier transform is associated with the amount of magnetization remaining after an echo

26

What is T2 in physics terms?

Because of field inhomogeneity, precessing molecules tend to get out of phase with each other (not precessing at the same rates). The longer the time from the pre-polarizing pulse, the greater the phase difference. T2 relaxes back to zero and the magnetization vector grows along z until the z vector equals Mo

27

The magnitude of T2 is always ______than T1

Less than

28

The x and y axes of a rotating frame of reference are denoted by_____

x' and y'

29

Why is applying an alternating magnetization factor in the x' y' plane the same as rotating the net magnetization vector around z at the larmour frequency?

When a magnetic field is applied by, for example, placing a loop of wire around the x axis, the alternating current will produce a magnetic field that alternates in direction from B1 to -B1. In a rotating frame of reference, rotating at the alternation frequency, the magnetization vector B1 appears stationary (the B1 vector moving at v0 appears stationary, the B1 vector moving at -v0 is moving at 2v0 and is so far removed from the spin frequency that it doesn't affect them.....)

30

What is the angle a spin will rotate around a pulsed magnetic field equal to?

2(pi)(gamma)(tau)(B1), with tau being the amount of time the field is on, which is much smaller than either T1 or T2

31

Which pulse rotates the equilibrium magnetization vector down to the y' axis?

90 degree pulse

32

Which pulse rotates the equilibrium magnetization vector down to the -z axis?

180 degree pulse

33

What is the energy of the photon that will be absorbed by a 1H nucleus in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field? How does this compare in energy to a 2x1019 Hz x-ray photon? What is the ionization potential for a typical organic molecule? Which of the two photons will ionize the molecule

Bo=1.5T
g = 42.58 MHz/T

The energy absorbed by a 1H nucleus is:
EH = h ν
EH = h γ Bo
EH = 6.626x10-34 Js * 42.58x106 Hz/T * 1.5 T
EH = 4.23x10-26 J

The energy of a ν=2x1019 Hz X-ray photon is:
EX = hν EX = 6.626 x 10-34 Js * 2x1019 Hz = 1.33x10-14 J

How the two energies

34

A sample has a T1 of 1.0 seconds. If the net magnetization is set equal to zero, how long will it take for the net magnetization to recover to 98% of its equilibrium value?

Given: T1 = 1.0s

The relationship between the equilibrium net magnetization, Mo, and the net magnetization, Mz(t), at time t is:
Mz(t) = Mo(1 - e-t/T1).

When Mz(t) / M0 = 98%:

0.98 = Mz(t) / M0 = (1 - e-t/T1)
0.98 = 1 - e-t/T1
1 - 0.98 = e-t/T1
ln( 0.02 ) = -t/T1
-T1 * ln( 0,02 ) = t
-1.0s * ln( 0,02 ) = 3.9s = t

35

A sample has a T2 of 100 ms. How long will it take for any transverse magnetization to decay to 37% of its starting value?

Given: T2 = 100ms.

The relationship between the initial transverse magnetization (Mxyo) and the transverse magnetization at any time t, Mxy(t), is:

Mxy(t) = Mxyoe-t/T2

When the transverse magnetization (Mxy) has decayed to 37% of its starting value:
0.37 = Mxy(t) / Mxy0 = e-t/T2

0.37 = e-t/T2

ln( 0.37 ) = -t/T2

-T2 * ln( 0.37 ) = t

-100ms * ln( 0.37 ) = 99.4ms = t

36

A hydrogen sample is at equilibrium in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field. A constant B1 field of 1.17x10-4 Tesla is applied along the +x'-axis for 50 microseconds. What is the direction of the net magnetization vector after the B1 field is turned off?

Given:
B1 = 1.17x10-4 T,
τ = 50x10-6 s, and

B1 is applied along the +x' axis.

The relationship between the rotation angle in radians (θ) and the length, in seconds, that the B1 field is applied (τ) is:
θ = 2π τ B1 γ

where: γ = gymagnetic ratio for the nuclei in question.

θ = 2π τ B1 γ

θ = 2π * 50x10-6s * 1.17x10-4T * 42.58 MHz/T

θ = 1.565 rad.

θ = 1.565 rad. * 180o/π rad = 89.673o

The net magnetization vector will be almost along the +y' axis: 89.673o from the +z axis after the clockwise about the +x' axis.