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Flashcards in MRI Brain Anatomy Deck (42)
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1

The 4 major components of the adult brain are

The cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon and brainstem.

2

The cerebrum is divided into right and left hemispheres by

the falx cerebri

3

What is a dense bundle of white matter fibers that connects the two hemispheres

The corpus callosum

4

Besides the Corpus Collosum, there are other white matter tracts that transmit electrical impulses throughout the brain and they are: 

the internal and external capsules

5

Projection fibers relay information from the cerebral cortex through the brainstem downward into the cord.  These fibers cross at the _____.  Therefore, if a patient has a stroke or injury on the left side of the brain, the right side of the body manifests symptoms.

medulla

6

Where is the Cerebral cortex located?

The outer layer of the brain is the cerebral cortex.

7

A cluster of subcortical gray matter in the brain is the

basal ganglia

8

What are the main portions of the basal ganglia?

The main portions of the basal ganglia are the caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus and the claustrum.

9

 Does  the basal ganglia enhance on postcontrast images?

 The basal ganglia does not enhance on postcontrast images

10

The diencephalon is a gray or white matter area that lies above the brainstem.

The diencephalon is a gray matter area that lies above the brainstem.

11

The diencephalon is composed of what four areas?

The diencephalon is composed of the thalamus, subthalamus, epithalamus and hypothalamus.

12

 The epithalamus is the ____ gland and its stalk, the infundibulum.

 The epithalamus is the pineal gland and its stalk, the infundibulum.

13

There are 3 parts of the brainstem.
 

The most superior portion of the brainstem is the midbrain. The anterior portion of the midbrain is composed of the cerebral peduncles, and the posterior section of the colliculi (corpora quadrigemina). The superior colliculus relays visual information and the inferior colliculus is an auditory pathway. The pons, which means “little belly” in Latin, is an area that bulges anteriorly and sends information between the midbrain and the medulla. 

14

The medulla oblongata is located where in comparison to the pons

Beneath the pons is the medulla oblongata.

15

The cerebellum, often called the “_____ _____”

little brain

 

 There are 2 cerebellar lobes separated by the folds of the falx cerebelli and connected in specific areas by the vermis.

16

The delicate brain is protected by 3 meningeal layers.

What are the 3 layers?

The strong, durable outer layer has 2 parts and is known as the dura mater. The meningeal arteries and the dural sinuses lie between the 2 layers of dura mater.

The arachnoid membrane is a delicate, spider-like layer beneath the dura mater. The area under the arachnoid is called the subarachnoid space. CSF circulates around the brain and spinal cord in the subarachnoid space, providing buoyancy and protection for the delicate structures.

The layer nearest the cerebral cortex is the pia mater. It is a highly vascular structure that adheres to the folds of the brain. 

17

What system transports CSF throughout the central nervous system.

The ventricular system transports CSF throughout the central nervous system.

18

The ventricular system transports CSF throughout the central nervous system. The system includes:

The ventricular system transports CSF throughout the central nervous system. The system includes 2 lateral ventricles, a third ventricle and a fourth ventricle.

19

The _____ _____ (aqueduct of Sylvius) connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle.

The cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius) connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle.

20

 CSF moves around the spinal cord and back into the dural sinuses, where it is absorbed in the _____ _____ _____.

 CSF moves around the spinal cord and back into the dural sinuses, where it is absorbed in the superior sagittal sinus

21

A network of blood vessels called the choroid plexus is located within the ventricles. The choroid plexus is responsible for daily production of _____.

A network of blood vessels called the choroid plexus is located within the ventricles. The choroid plexus is responsible for daily production of CSF.

22

The myelin of an infant is not well developed until the age of _____

The myelin of an infant is not well developed until the age of 2 years

23

Brain tissue in an infant 2 years or younger appears isointense, meaning there is not much contrast between the gray and white matter.

If a radiologist wants to better define this area, an _____ _____ _____ is helpful.

Brain tissue in an infant 2 years or younger appears isointense, meaning there is not much contrast between the gray and white matter.

If a radiologist wants to better define this area, an inversion recovery sequence is helpful.

24

_____ occurs when an anatomical structure fails to develop in utero

Agenesis occurs when an anatomical structure fails to develop in utero

25

_____ is when a structure develops abnormally.

Dysgenesis is when a structure develops abnormally

26

_____-_____ _____ is a congenital brain malformation in which the fourth ventricle is enlarged, causing  extreme accumulation of CSF in the posterior fossa area of the brain.

Dandy-Walker syndrome is a congenital brain malformation in which the fourth ventricle is enlarged, causing  extreme accumulation of CSF in the posterior fossa area of the brain.

27

When the posterior part of the skull is narrower than normal, this is called a Chiari malformation.

A Chiari malformation occurs when the posterior part of the skull is narrower than normal.

28

There are four types of Chiari Form malformations.  Of the four, which is the most series and which is the most common?

Even though type III is uncommon, it is the most serious type of Chiari malformation.

29

Inflammation of the brain is referred to as _____

Inflammation of the brain is referred to as encephalitis.

30

 Inflammation generally appears _____ on T2-weighted images; radiologists check the brain for symmetry because mass effect also may be present.

 Inflammation generally appears hyperintense on T2-weighted images; radiologists check the brain for symmetry because mass effect also may be present.

31

Meningitis indicates inflammation of the _____.

Meningitis indicates inflammation of the meninges.

32

_____ _____, is a common white matter disease that affects the myelin in the brain.

Multiple sclerosis, or MS, is a common white matter disease that affects the myelin in the brain.

33

Multiple Sclerosis Lesions are _____ on T1-weighted images and _____ on T2-weighted images.

Lesions are isointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images.

34

The term “neoplasia” means _____ _____.

The term “neoplasia” means new growth

35

Brain tumors are classified as _____ or _____.

Brain tumors are classified as intracranial or extracranial.

36

Where are Gliomas found.

Gliomas are cancerous tumors found only within the brain or spinal cord.

 

They are graded 1 to 4; the highest grade, glioblastoma multiforme, is the most aggressive. A glioma that transverses both hemispheres of the brain is a butterfly glioma.

37

Meningiomas are benign tumors that grow from or on the meninges; therefore, their  location is on top of the brain tissue. Since they do not grow within brain tissue, they are classified as _____ tumors.

Meningiomas are benign tumors that grow from or on the meninges; therefore, their  location is on top of the brain tissue. Since they do not grow within brain tissue, they are classified as extracranial tumors.

38

How do meningiomas appear on a precontrast T1 and post contrast T2 weighted image

Meningiomas are isointense on precontrast T1 images, and hyperintense on T1-weighted post contrast images.

39

Acoustic neuromas are benign, slow-growing tumors located on the seventh and eighth cranial nerves. They also are considered intracranial or extracranial tumors because of their location in the petrous ridge.

Acoustic neuromas are benign, slow-growing tumors located on the seventh and eighth cranial nerves. They also are considered extracranial tumors because of their location in the petrous ridge.

40

An _____ occurs when an arterial wall weakens and fills with an abnormal amount of blood.

An aneurysm occurs when an arterial wall weakens and fills with an abnormal amount of blood.

41

The 2 major types of strokes are ischemic and hemorrhagic. Nearly 80% to 90% of strokes are considered _____ 

A stroke occurs when there is a sudden disruption of blood flow to the brain, resulting in damage to brain tissue. The 2 major types of strokes are ischemic and hemorrhagic. Nearly 80% to 90% of strokes are considered ischemic and are caused when stenosis, a thrombus or an embolism blocks the arteries.

42

A smaller number of strokes are classified as _____, the consequence of blood vessel leakage or rupture.

A smaller number of strokes are classified as hemorrhagic, the consequence of blood vessel leakage or rupture.