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Flashcards in mRNA processing Deck (46)
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1
Q

When does mRNA processing occur?

A

Cotranscriptional, occurs at same time

2
Q

Order of mRNA processing

A

Capping
Splicing
Polyadenylation

3
Q

What is mRNA called directly after transcription?

A

pre-mRNA

4
Q

Where does mRNA processing occur?

A

In the nucleus

5
Q

What happens to G residue in capping?

A

Methylated and binds to protein complex called cap binding complex (methyl guanosine cap)

6
Q

What are the roles of 5’ capping (4)?

A

Protect 5’ of mRNA from degradation by exonucleases

Improve ribosomal recognition for translation

Provide scope for translation regulation

Recognised by export machinery - helps mRNA move out of nucleus

7
Q

What is the 5’ cap?

A

Altered nucleotide on 5’ end

8
Q

What happens in capping?

A

GMP nucleotide/ G residue added to 5’ end of pre-mRNA by 5’-5’ triphosphate bond

9
Q

What is unique about the 5’ end linkage?

A

5’-5’ bond

10
Q

What does splicing do to exons and introns?

A

Excision of introns and fusion of exons

11
Q

What directs splicing?

A

Splicesome

12
Q

What does the spliceosome consist of?

A

5snRNAs bound to 100 splicing factors - forms complexes known as snRNPs

13
Q

What sort of reaction occurs in splicing?

A

snRNA mediated transesterification reaction

Causes 2 sequential breakages and rejoining of RNA sugar phosphate backbone

14
Q

Where are splice sites?

A

5’ and 3’ ones at border of each intron/exon

15
Q

What group is at the end of a 5’ cap , why is this important?

A

3’OH, not recognised by exonucleases

16
Q

What do snRNAs do?

A

Complementary sequence to splice site

Recruits components of spliceosome - RNA protein interactions between spliceosome and preRNA allows introns to be spliced

17
Q

What is the process of splicing?

A

2’ OH of adenosine in intron (branch point) nucleophilic attack on 5’ exon/intron border

Transesterification reaction causes lariat intron joined with 3’ exon and release of 5’ exon

3’ OH of 5’ exon attacks lariat intron/3’ exon junction

Transesterification then fuses 5’ and 3’ exons.

18
Q

What is found at the branch point?

A

2’OH of an adenosine

19
Q

What are snRNPs?

A

Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) bound to specific proteins

Ribonucleoproteins snRNPs

20
Q

What is at 5’ end of intron?

A

GU

21
Q

What is at 3’ end of intron?

A

AG

22
Q

What happens at exon exon junctions after splicing?

A

Marked by deposition of exon junction proteins/complex

23
Q

What is nonsense mediated decay?

A

Surveillance mechanism in which exon junction proteins act as markers to identify faulty mRNA

24
Q

How does nonsense mediated decay protected mRNA?

A

Exon junction complex downstream of stop codon recognised

Indicates premature stop codon so faulty mRNA degraded

25
Q

After what point should you no longer find exon junction complexes?

A

After normal stop codon.

26
Q

What does alternative splicing allow?

A

Tissue specific gene expression, several proteins to be made from single gene

27
Q

What correlates with increased complexity of organism?

A

More introns per gene and thus greater expansion of proteome.

28
Q

When/where can alternative splicing occur?

A

In different cell types or response to different signals

29
Q

How can alternative splicing be made to include certain exon?

A

Enhancer proteins bind enhancer sequence in exons, make splice site more attractive.

More likely to include the exon in mRNA

30
Q

How can alternative splicing prevent splicing of a gene?

A

Proteins bind to silencer region prevent spliceosome associating with splice site (weaken splice site)

31
Q

What happens when enhancer proteins associated with mRNA?

A

Splicing factors more likely to recognise 3’ and 5’ splice sites that flank an exon

32
Q

How can an exon be skipped?

A

Negative factors bind specific exon sequences prevent recognition of 3’ and 5’ splice sites flanking exon

33
Q

What are 2 steps of polyadenylation?

A

premRNA cleaved 20 bases downstream by endonucleases

Poly(A) polymerase adds Poly(A) tail to 3’ end

34
Q

What does polyadenylation consensus sequence signal (AAUAAA)?

A

Signals cleavage of premRNA 20 bases downstream

Signals polyadenylation

35
Q

What are cleave and polyadenylation machinery associated with?

A

AAUAAA and DSE sequence (second signal after cleavage site)

36
Q

How does polyA tail form

A

Poly(A) polymerase adds poly(A) tial to 3’ end

Donated by ATP which is then covered by Poly(A) binding proteins

37
Q

How many residues is poly(A) tail?

A

250 adenosine resiudes

38
Q

What donates adenosine residue for poly (A) tail?

A

ATP

39
Q

What happens after poly A tail formed?

A

Covered by poly(A) binding proteins

40
Q

What enzyme catalyses poly(A) tail formation?

A

Poly(A) polymerase

41
Q

What are the roles of Poly(A) tail (3)?

A

Uniform 3’ end for nuclear cytoplasmic transport, stability, translatability

Makes mRNA more stable because must be degraded by exonucleases before they reach coding mRNA, so more time for this to be translated

Cap and poly (A) binding proteins interact, forming structure that recruits ribosome to mRNA- enhances translation

42
Q

How can mutations affect splice sites?

A

Lead to reduced/abolished splicing of some introns, or faulty mRNAs that contian intronic sequences.

43
Q

What can mutations affecting poly(A) signals do?

A

Increase/reduce cleavage and polyadenylation so total ouput of mRNA affected

(i.e. poly(A) machinery may not recognise AAUAAA sequence)

44
Q

How can mRNA presence in the cell be regulated?

A

Transcription of siRNAs and miRNAs that target and break down mRNA in the cytosol.

45
Q

How do siRNAs break down mRNA?

A

siRNA originates as a long RNA strand that is double stranded.

Dicer enzymes then catalyse the production of siRNAs, enabling the siRNA to associate with proteins to form a RISC complex that is single stranded.

The siRNA then binds to the target mRNA and induces cleavage. So it cannot be translated.

46
Q

How do miRNAs break down mRNA?

A

Less specific short RNA sequences that bind to mRNA strands to physically block it from translation.