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What is universality?

Universality as a broad concept means that something is universal- it exists in all conditions all over.


What is gender bias?

They both consist of alpha and beta bias

suggest that a person's views are distorted in some way, and in psychology there is evidence that gender is presented in a biased way. 


What is cultural bias?

Cultural bias is the phenomenon of interpreting and judging phenomena by standards inherent to one's own culture


What is androcentrism?

It is the possible consequence of beta bias

If our understanding of what counts as 'normal' behaviour is drawn from research that involves all-male samples then any behaviour that deviates from this standard is likely to be judged as 'abnormal'


What is alpha bias?

It is a type of androcentric bias (dominantly male perspective) in which

The differences between males and females are exaggerated and so stereotypically male and the female characters are exaggerated. 


What is beta bias?

A beta bias is when the differences between males and females are minimised so that the male view is considered and appied to both genders.

The life experience of females is ignored


What is ethnocentrism?

evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture.


What is culture relativism?

Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.


What is the ethical implication?

This may arise when there is a conflict between psychology's need to gain valid and valuable research findings whilst, at the same time preserving the rights and dignity of participants

-ethical guidelines are established


What is social sensitive research/methods?

Some areas of research are controversial and subject to greater social sensitivity then others

they may tackle socially sensitive taboo topics such as race or sexuality 


Example of gender bias

  • In Milgram's study of obedience as they had no involvement in women, they generalised their findings as well as their experimental variation. This promotes inequality as a later study conducted with women found out that they had higher obedience rates



Example of culture bias

Ainsworth Strange Situation

findings from observation of assessing the different attachment types as per the research based on Western individualist perspective onto others.

This is a problem as they accused German to have high insecure-avoidant behaviour however, their culture is different as they value independence. 


Example of ethical issues in socially sensitive research

  • Implications - wider effects of research should be considered
  • Uses of public policiy - What is the research likely to be used for? May be adopted by the gov for political ends
  • Validity of research - some findings may be objective