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Flashcards in MSK 3 Deck (86):
1

Temporomandibular Joint: Normal range of motion test

3 finger insert test

2

#1

  • __________ are hard, bony outgrowths or gelatinous cysts on the proximal interphalangeal joints (the middle joints of fingers or toes.)
  • Sign of ___________

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Bouchard's nodes=PIP

Osteoarthritis

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3

#2

  • _________ are hard or bony swellings that can develop in the distal interphalangeal joints (DIP) (the joints closest to the end of the fingers and toes)
  • Sign of ___________

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  • Heberden's nodes=DIP
  • Osteoarthritis

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4

#1

  • It results from hyperflexion of the extensor digitorum tendon
  • Injury of the extensor digitorum tendon of the fingers at the distal interphalangeal joint
  • Usually occurs when a ball, while being caught, hits an outstretched finger and jams it
  • Inability to extend finger

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Mallet Finger

Hyperflexion at DIP (extensor digitorum tendon)

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5

#2

  • Presents with flexion of the PIP and hyperextension of the DIP.

    • PIP=flexion

    • DIP=hyperextension

  • May affect one or more fingers, including the thumb.

  • Active flexion results in being “stuck” until person passively extends finger
  • PIP joint will not straightened under its own power (actively) but can be straightened by the other hand (passively). In addition the end joint of the finger (DIP joint) over straightens and will not bend (flex) fully.
  • Keyword: "POP"
  • Generally caused by a forceful blow to the top (dorsal) side of a bent (flexed) middle joint of a finger or a deep cut.
  • May also be caused by Rheumatoid arthritis

 

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Boutonniere ("button hole") deformity/Trigger finger

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6

#3

  • Develops with hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint and flexion of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint.

    • PIP=hyperextension

    • DIP=flexion

  • May affect one or more fingers but not the thumb.

  • Occurs in about 50 per cent of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cases

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Swan-neck deformity

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7

"Squeeze-Test" (MTP/MCP)

  • Indicates Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Positive squeeze test -- where squeezing the hand across the knuckle joints is unduly painful

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8

Signs of Rheumatoid arthritis

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9

  • grating, crackling or popping sounds and sensations experienced in the joints or a crackling sensation
  • Indication of lost cartilage (sound is bone on bone)

  • crepitus

10

  • __________ and _________ will likely display crepitus
  • Also common in trauma and is a common sign of ________

  • osteoarthritis
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • bone fracture

11

  • Presence of increased intra-articular fluid (fluid in the joint)
  • Can be blood, synovial fluid, or gout fluid

Joint Effusion

12

Palpate for warmth utilizing the ____ of the hand

dorsum

13

Shoulder range of motion

  1. flexion (180 degrees)
  2. extension (50 degrees)
  3. abduction (180 degrees)
  4. adduction (50 degrees)
  5. internal rotation (90 degrees)
  6. external rotation (90 degrees)

(ball and socket joint)

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14

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • shoulder flexion

180 degrees

(same as abduction)

A image thumb
15

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • shoulder hyperextension

50 degrees

(same as adduction)

A image thumb
16

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • shoulder abduction

180 degrees

(same as flexion)

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17

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • shoulder adduction

50 degrees

(same as hyperextension)

A image thumb
18

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • shoulder external rotation

90 degrees

 

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19

Elbow range of motion

  1. Flexion (160 degrees)
  2. Extension (180 degrees)
  3. Pronation (90 degrees)
  4. Supination (90 degrees)

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20

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Elbow flexion

160 degrees

A image thumb
21

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Elbow extension

180 degrees

A image thumb
22

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Elbow supination

90 degrees

A image thumb
23

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Elbow pronation

90 degrees

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24

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • shoulder internal rotation

90 degrees

 

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25

Identify

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  • Olecranon bursitis
  • inflammation of the fluid filled sac of the elbow joint; NOT INFECTION
  • No actual effusion in the joint; only the bursa
  • Note that this is a mobile "ball"
  • Due to trauma
  • May get cellulitis

26

Wrist range of motion

  1. Flexion (90 degrees)
  2. Extension (70 degrees)
  3. Radial deviation (toward thumb) (20 degrees)
  4. Ulnar deviation (toward pinky) (55 degrees)

A image thumb
27

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Wrist flexion

90 degrees

A image thumb
28

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Wrist extension

70 degrees

A image thumb
29

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Wrist radial deviation

20 degrees

(toward thumb)

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30

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Wrist ulnar deviation

55 degrees

(toward pinky)

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31

Finger range of Motion

  1. Flexion (MCPJ) (90 degrees)
  2. Hyperextension (MCPJ) (30 degrees)
  3. Abduction
  4. Adduction
  5. Opposition (thumb)

A image thumb
32

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Finger (MCPJ) Flexion

90 degrees

A image thumb
33

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Finger (MCPJ) hyperextension

30 degrees

A image thumb
34

Identify the thumb movement

Q image thumb

flexion of thumb

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35

Identify the thumb movement

Q image thumb

extension of thumb

A image thumb
36

Identify the thumb movements

Q image thumb

  • Adduction of thumb (top arrow toward fingers)
  • Abduction of thumb (bottom arrow away from fingers)

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37

Identify thumb movement

Opposition of thumb

38

Thumb range of motion

  1. Flexion
  2. Extension
  3. Abduction
  4. Adduction
  5. Opposition

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39

Identify

  • condition in which the knees angle in and touch each other when the legs are straightened

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Genu Valgum "knock knees"

 

40

Identify

  • condition in which the knees of an affected individual are wide apart, while the ankles and feet are together when he/she stands up.
  • lower leg is angled inward (medially) in relation to the thigh's axis, giving the limb overall the appearance of an archer's bow. Usually medial angulation of both lower limb bones (femur and tibia) is involved.

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Genu Varum "Bow Legged"

  • In most children under 2 years old, bowing of the legs is simply a normal variation in leg appearance. In children with physiologic genu varum, the bowing begins to slowly improve at approximately 18 months of age and continues as the child grows. By ages 3 to 4, the bowing has corrected and the legs typically have a normal appearance.

41

Hip range of motion

  1. Flexion
    • Knee flexed: 120 degrees
    • Knee extended: 30 degrees
  2. Extension (90 degrees)
  3. Abduction (45 degrees)
  4. Adduction (30 degrees)
  5. Internal (medial) Rotation (40 degrees)
  6. External (lateral) Rotation (45 degrees)

A image thumb
42

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Hip flexion

  • Flexion-knee flexed (120 degrees)
  • Flexion-knee extended (30 degrees)

A image thumb
43

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Hip extension

90 degrees

A image thumb
44

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Hip abduction

45 degrees

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45

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Hip adduction

30 degrees

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46

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Hip Internal rotation

40 degrees

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47

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Hip external rotation

45 degrees

A image thumb
48

Knee range of motion

  1. Flexion (130 degrees)
  2. Extension (15 degrees)

A image thumb
49

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • knee flexion

130 degrees

A image thumb
50

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • knee extension

15 degrees

A image thumb
51

Ankle range of motion

  1. Plantar flexion (45 degrees)
  2. Dorsiflexion (20 degrees)
  3. Inversion (30 degrees)
  4. Eversion (20 degrees)

A image thumb
52

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Ankle plantar flexion

45 degrees

A image thumb
53

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Ankle dorsiflexion

20 degrees

(same as ankle eversion)

A image thumb
54

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Ankle inversion

30 degrees

A image thumb
55

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Ankle eversion

20 degrees

(same as ankle dorsiflexion)

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56

Toe range of motion

  1. Flexion
  2. Extension

57

Lordosis is a  _______ or ______ concavity

  • Cervical
  • Lumbar

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58

  • Lateral inspection
  • ___________ refers to an inward (concave) curvature of the cervical and lumbar regions of the human spine.
  • Can also refer to extreme curvature in those regions

Q image thumb

Lordosis

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59

  • Lateral inspection
  • _________ refers to the normal outward (convex) curvature in the thoracic and sacral regions
  • Can also refer to extreme curvature in those regions

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Kyphosis

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60

Kyphosis is a _____ and _____ convexity

  • Thoracic
  • Sacral

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61

Lordosis is con____

conCAVE

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62

kyphosis is con____

conVEX

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63

Normal Spine

  • Cervical spinE is _________
  • Thoracic spine is _________
  • Lumbar spine is _________
  • Sacral spine is _________

  • Cervical spinE is conCAVE
  • Thoracic spine is conVEX
  • Lumbar spine is conCAVE
  • Sacral spine is conVEX

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64

POSTERIOR INSPECTION OF SPINE

Symmetry of _______ and ________

  • Shoulder height
  • Iliac crest

65

POSTERIOR INSPECTION OF SPINE

When inspecting the spinal column, an upright spinal column should have an imaginary line from _____ through the _______

  • C7
  • gluteal cleft

66

__________ is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle

muscle atrophy

67

________ involves an increase in size of skeletal muscle through a growth in size of its component cells

muscle hypertrophy

68

Identify

  • (posterior inspection) a spine that curves to the side

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Scoliosis

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69

  • ____ is the top of the shoulder
  • _____ is the tip of the shoulder

  • T1
  • T7-T8

70

It's common to find a harmless deposit of fat under the skin on the back. This is called ______

lipoma

71

An abnormal tuft of hair of the back may indicate _______

spina bifida

Spina bifida is a birth defect where there is incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around the spinal cord.

72

_________ is a benign, flat, congenital birthmark with wavy borders and irregular shape.

May appear on the backs of infants.

Mongolian spot (congenital dermal melanocytosis)

73

  • ______ is a visible and palpable finding of the spine where the bones are not lined up properly which can be seen and felt by the examiner
  • Commonly due to trauma

"step-off"

74

Cervical spine range of motion

  1. Flexion (45 degrees)
  2. Extension (55 degrees)
  3. Lateral Rotation (70 degrees right and left)
  4. Lateral bending (40 degrees right and left)

A image thumb
75

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Cervical spine flexion

45 degrees

A image thumb
76

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Cervical spine extension

55 degrees

A image thumb
77

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Cervical spine lateral rotation (right and left)

70 degrees

A image thumb
78

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • Cervical spine lateral bending (right and left)

40 degrees

A image thumb
79

When performing cervical spine range of motion, you may need to stabilize the ______

shoulders-prevents chest movement

80

Which cranial nerve?

  • As patient to rotate head to one side then apply resistance--> compare to other side
  • Have patient shrug shoulders against resistance and compare

Q image thumb

Cranial Nerve XI (Accessory)

Nine

81

Spine range of motion

  1. Flexion (90 degrees)
  2. Extension (30 degrees)
  3. Lateral Bending (35 degrees right and left)
  4. Lateral Rotation (30 degrees right and left)

A image thumb
82

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • spine flexion

90 degrees

A image thumb
83

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • spine extension

30 degrees

A image thumb
84

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • spine lateral bending (right and left)

35 degrees

A image thumb
85

Degree of normal range of motion:

  • spine lateral rotation (right and left)

30 degrees

A image thumb
86

When performing spinal range of motion, be sure to stabilize the ________

Hips