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Flashcards in MSK Deck (57)
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1

What are the contents of the axilla?

AAABBC

Axillary artery

Axillary vein

Axillary lymph nodes

Brachial plexus

Biceps brachii

Coracobrachialis

2

What would be the consequence of a fracture of the humerus at the:

a) surgical neck

b) mid shaft

c) Distal end 

a) Damage to arterial circumflex and necrosis. Damage to axillary nerve

b) Danage to brachial artery, radial nerve, and wrist drop

c ) Damage to ulnar nerve

3

What would occur in damage to the long thoracic nerve?

Winged scapula due to loss of tonic contraction of serratus anterior

4

What is a clinical sign of a scaphoid fracture?

Tenderness of anatomical snuffbox

5

What is a colles' fracture?

Falling on outstretched hands

Distal fragment displaced posteriorly, dinner fork appearance

6

What is a smiths fracture?

Falling on flexed wrists

Distal fragment displaced anteriorly, spade appearance

7

Draw the brachial plexus

8

What are the nerve roots of the:

a) median nerve

b) musculocutaneous

c) Ulnar

d) Radial

e) Axillary

a) C6 - 6 letters in median

b and c) Musculocutaneous and ulnar is all possibilities there musc = c5 - c7, ulnar = C8-T1

d) Radial = C5 - T1

e) Axillary = C5-6

9

What happens in injury to the upper brachial plexus and lower brachial plexus>? Where would you test for paralysis.

 

Upper - erb's palsy. Waiter tip appearance. Lateral side of arm paralysis

Lower - Klumpke's palsy. Paralysis of small muscles of hand. Medial side of arm paralysis

10

What would happen if the median nerve was damaged:

a) at the elbow

b) at the wrist

a) unable to flex first 3 digits. forearm supinated and weak flexion. Hand of benediction

b) unable to flex first 3 digits. Hand of benediciton

 

11

State the borders of the cubital fossa and what it contains.

Medial - Pronator teres

Lateral - Brachioradialis

Superior - Imaginary line between epicondyles

 

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Radial Nerve

Biceps Tendon

Brachial Artery

Median Nerve

12

What is student's elbow?

Inflammation of the subcutaneous olecranon bursa

13

Name the bones of the wrist

Some Lovers Try Positions That They Cant Handle

Scaphoid

Lunate

Triquitrum

Pisiform

Trapezium

Trapezoid

Capitate

Hamate

14

What is tennis elbow and golf elbow?

Tennis elbow - Lateral epicondylitis

Golf elbow - Medial epicondylitis

15

Name the posterior muscles of the forearm and actions

Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis

Extensor carpi ulnaris

Extensor pollicis brevis

Abductor Pollicis longus

Extensor pollicis longus

Extensor digitorum

Extensor digiti minimi

Extensor indices - index finger

Supinator

Brachioradialis - flexes elbow

Anconeus

 

3 x 3 + 3:

3 wrist muscles

3 thumb muscles

3 finger muscles

+ 3 misc muscles - anconeus, supinator, brachioradialis

16

Name the muscles of the anterior forearm and their innervation

Median innervation:

Pronator teres

Flexor carpi radialis

Palmaris longus

Flexor pollicis longus

Pronator Quadratus

FDS

Half of FDP

 

Ulnar innervation:

Half of FDP

Flexor carpi ulnaris

17

What is a dupuytrens contracture?

Shortening and thickening of palmar fascia

18

What does the carpal tunnel contain?

Median nerve

9 tendons - 4 FDP, 4 FDS, 1 flexor pollicis longus

19

Give 4 possible causes of carpal tunnel syndrome

MEDIAN TRAP

Myxoedema

edema premenstrually

Diabetes

Idiopathic

Acromegaly

Neoplasm

Trauma

Rheumatoid arthritis

Amyloidosis

Pregnancy

20

State the thenar muscles of the hand. What nerve innervates them?

All Fridges Operate Annually

Abductor pollicis brevis

Flexor pollicis brevis

Opponens pollicis

Adductor pollicis brevis

 

All median except adductor pollicis brevis which is ulnar

21

State the hypothenar muscles of the hand and their innervation

Abductor digiti minimi

Flexor difiti minimi brevis

Opoonens digiti minimi

 

Ulnar innervations

22

What is the action of the lumbricals and what innervates them?

Lumbricals flex at MCP joint and extend at IP joint (bye bye muscles)

Lumbricals 1 and 2 - Median

Lumbricals 3 and 4 - Ulnar

23

What is the function of the palmar and dorsal Interossei muscles and what innervates them?

PAD DAB

Palmar - ADducts at MCP

Dorsal - ABducts at MCP

 

Both innervated by ulnar

24

Name the bones of the foot

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Talus

Calcaneous

Navicular

Medial intermediate lateral cuneiform

Cuboid

25

What is the differene between an intracapsular and extracapsular fracture of the femur?

Intracapsular - Femoral circumflex artery damaged

26

Name the muscles of the anterior thigh and their innervations and their actions

Psoas major

Iliacus (iliopsoas)

Recuts femoris

Vastus medialis, intermedius and lateralis

Sartorius - ABducts and lateral rotator of hip

Pectineus - ADducts at hip

 

All innervated by femoral nerve

27

Name the muscles of the medial thigh and their innervations

Adductor magnus, longus, brevis

Obturator externus

Gracialis

 

Innervations are all Obturator Nerve

28

Name the muscles of the posterior thigh and their innervations

Biceps femoris

Semitendinosus - medial

Semimembranosus - lateral

 

Innervated by Sciatic Nerve

29

Name the borders of the femoral triangle

Superior - inguinal ligament

Medial - Adductor longus

Lateral - Sartorius

30

What are the contents of the femoral canal?

NAVEL / NAVY

Nerve

Artery 

Vein

Y fronts

 

Nerve

Artery

Vein

Empty Space (femoral canal)

Lymph vessels

31

Explain the arterial blood supply of the lower limb up to the knee

Abdominal Aorta --> common iliac 

Common iliac splits into external and interal iliac

  1. External iliac --> femoral artery. Femoral artery goes through adductor hiatus and to the back of the knee and becomes popliteal artery
  2. Internal iliac --> gluteal arteries and obturator arteries. Obturator supples medial thigh.

32

What is the nerve roots of the:

a) femoral nerve

b) obturator nerve

c) Sciatic nerve

a) L2 - L4

b) L2 - L4

c) L5 - S2

33

What happens to the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa?

Splits into tibial and common fibular

34

What is intermittent claudication?

Atherosclerosis of the lower limb arteries. Pain on exercise;

35

What are the superficial gluteal muscles and their actions and innervation?

Gluteus maximus - infeior gluteal nerve - extensor of hip

Gluteus medius - superior gluteal nerve - abducts and medially rotates

Gluteus minimis - same as medius

36

What are the deep gluteal muscles and their actions?

Pretty Girls Often Grow Old Quickly

Piriformis

Gemelli superior

Obturator internus

Gemlli inferior

Obturator externus

Quadratus femoris

 

All laterally rotate and abduct

37

What happens in damage to the superior gluteal nerve? how would you test?

trendelenburgs test

Hip drop on opposite side of damage

38

What are the 3 ligaments of the hip joint?

Pubofemoral

Iliofemoral

Ischiofemoral

39

Name the vertebral column bones and the number in them

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Cervical - 7

Thoracic - 12

Lumbar - 5 

Sacral - 5

Coccyx - 4

40

what are the 2 components of an IV disc? What happens in a slipped disc?

Nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus

 

In slipped disc - nucleus herniates through annulus fibrosus

41

What is C1 and C2 called? what distinguishing features do they have?

C1 - Atlas. Lacks spinous process

C2 - Axis. Large spinous process.

42

How would you distinguish between the vertebrae?

Cervical - oval foramen

Thoracic - Circular foramen

Lumbar - Triangular foramen

43

What are the ligaments of the knee?

Lateral and medial collateral

Anterior and posterior cruciate 

Patellar ligament

44

How is blood supplied to the knee?

Via genicular arteries from the femoral artery

45

What is a housemaid's kne and a clergyman's knee?

Housemaids - Inflammation of prepatellar bursa

Clergymans - Inflammation of infrapatella bursa

46

What are the borders of the popliteal fossa?

Superiormedial - semimembranosus

Superiorlateral - Biceps femoris

Inferior - heads of biceps femoris

47

What are the contents of the popliteal fossa?

Popliteal artery, vein,

Tibial nerve

Common fibular nerve

 

Medial to lateral VANN

48

What is a popliteal cyst?

Inflammation of the semimembranosus bursa

49

What are the lateral muscles of the leg and their innervation?

Fibularis longus and brevis - superficial fibular

50

What are the muscles of the anterior leg and their innervation?

Tibialis anterior

Extensor digitorum longus

Extensor hallucis longus

 

All deep fibular nerve

 

51

What are the muscles of the posterior leg and their innervations and actions?

Gastrocnemius

Plantaris

Soleus

 

All above involved in plantarflexion

 

Popliteus  - laterally rotats femur

Tibialis posterior - inversion and plantarflexion

Flexor digitorum longus

Flexor hallucis longus

 

All innervated by tibial nerve

52

What is the order of the structures passing the medial malleolus?

Tom Dick And Nervous Harry

Tibialis posterior

Digitorum longus

Artery tibial

Nerve tibial

Hallucis longus

53

Why might foot drop occur if head of fibula damaged?

Fibular nerve wraps around head of fibula.

54

What are the features of OA on an xray? name 4

Bone cysts, sclerosis, loss of joint space, osteophytes

55

How would you treat Osteoporosis?

bisphosphonates to inhibit osteoclast activity

56

What is a potts fracture?

Bimalleolar fracture

57