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Flashcards in CVS Deck (12)
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What is pulse pressure? How do you calculate average pressure?

Pulse pressure = systolic - diastolic pressure

Diastolic plus 1/3rd of pulse pressure


What is reactive hyperaemia?

Blood flow to limb cut off. Build up of vasodilator factors, K+ H+ and adenosine, dilates blood vessels. Return of blood flow = huge


How does the CVS respond to eating a meal?

GI metabolises producing local vasodilators and reducing TPR. Venous pressure rises and arterial pressure falls.

Heart increases CO to compensate.


How does the CVS respond to exercise?

Opening of arteries in blood would result in massive decrease in TPR and increase in venous pressure,

Prevented by pre-exercise increase in CO


How does the CVS respond to standing up?

Blood pools in legs due to gravity, decreasing CVP and therefore arterial pressure.

Baroreceptors detect change and raise HR and TPR to defend arterial pressure.


How does the CVS respond to hemorrhage?

Reduced blood volume --> lower venous pressure --> lower arterial pressure

Baroreceptors increase HR and TPR  to compensate, results in faster blood loss.


How does the CVS respond to increase in blood volume?

Increase in venous pressure and arterial pressure.

More blood in tissues --> autoregulation --> increase in TPR

Leads to increase in further increase in arterial pressure.


Name the 5 types of anti arrhythmic drugs and give an example of each.

Never Actually Punch Children

  1. Na channel blockers e.g. lidocaine
  2. Antagonists of beta Adrenoreceptors e.g. propanolol
  3. Potassium channel blockers e.g. amiodarone
  4. Calcium channel blockers e.g. verapamil
  5. Adenosine


What would the following ECGs show?

a) Stable angina



a) ST segment depression

b) T wave inversion, ST segment depression

c) ST segment elevation, T wave inversion, pathological Q waves


Name 2 cardiac biomarkers

Cardiac troponin, creatine kinase


What are the symptoms concerning:

a) Left sided heart failure

b) right sided heart failure

Left sided heart failure – Tachycardia, peripheral oedema

Right sided heart failure – Raised JVP, pitting oedema, ascites, oedema in areas drained by systemic veins.