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Flashcards in MT 1 Deck (50)
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1

1. What percentage of cases of renal failure in the US can be contributed to diabetes?

a. 10
b. 75
c. 36
d. 95

C

2

A 38 year old female patient presents with a history of photosensitivity, oral ulcers, polyarteritis, anemia, pleuritis and malar butterfly rash. These symptoms are most descriptive of:

a. RA
b. OA
c. NIDDM
d. SLE

D

3

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) is seen primarily in:

a. Adults
b. Children
c. Geriatric patients only
d. All ages

B

4

Cause of reversible acute renal failure include:

a. Dehydration
b. Vascular collapse
c. reduced cardiac output
d. all of the above

D

5

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Wilm’s tumor?

a. Abdominal pain and distention
b. anorexia and vomiting
c. 95% of cases bilateral
d. high metastatic

C

6

Female are more likely then men to suffer from survite (MAP) calculi

a. True
b. False

A

7

As mentioned in class, some health experts (such as Dr. Mercola) feel that it is extremely important and beneficial to monitor patient insulin levels and keep blood insulin levels as low as possible

a. True
b. False

A

8

Acute glomerulonephritis will typical exhibit all of the following except:

a. gross hematuria
b. proteinuria
c. hypertension
d. superficial kidney cysts

D

9

Systemic lupus erythematosus can eventually lead to kidney damage

a. True
b. False

A

10

The glomerular filtration rate of the kidney is

a. 125 ml/day
b. 175-180 ml/day
c. 175-180 l/day
d. 125 l/day

C

11

The kidneys typically move 3 cm vertically during breathing

a. True
b. False

A

12

Metabolic oxalate produced and found in much greater quantities in the human body than oxalate from dietary sources

a. True
b. False

A

13

Fasting blood sugar must be above ____ mg/dl on at least two different days to be diagnosed as a diabetic

a. 50
b. 126
c. 75
d. 250

B

14

A 35 year old female patient presents with an abrupt onset of shaking chills, moderate to high fever, tachycardia, constant ache in the loin area, and symptoms of cystitis-frequency, nocturia, urgency, dysuria. Her UA indicates leukocytosis, ESR elevated , heavy pyuria presents, bacteriuria, and mild proteinuria.

a. Neuroblastoma
b. SLE
c. Pyelonephritis
d. adrenal cortical hyperplasia

C

15

40% of type 2 diabetics are considered to be obese

a. True
b. False

B

16

Which of the following organs is not directly involved int he rennin-angiotensin pathway

a. liver
b. lungs
c. kidneys
d. spleen

D

17

.“Insulin” that is typically prescribed for diabetic patients in the US is actually derived from

a. recombinant DNA from E.Coli
b. Sine insulin
c. Rhesus monkey insulin
d. two of the above

D

18

The right kidney, crowded by the liver, is a bit lower (inferior) than the left kidney

a. True
b. False

A

19

The kidneys are usually much enlarged, their surfaces studded with cysts. Pain is found over one or both kidneys. This description best describes

a. Renal cell carcinoma
b. adult polycystic kidney disease
c. BPH
d. poststreptococal glomerulonephritis

B

20

A patient presents with an abrupt, acute onset of pain in the kidney area. The patient was awakened during the night due to the extremely severe pain. Hematuria and crystalluria are present. Based on this brief information only, what is the most likely condition present?

a. Poststreptococal glomerulonephritis
b. Nephroma
c. urinary calculi
d. nephrotic syndrome

C

21

The anatomic position of the kidneys is the the level of the _____ vertebral area

a. T10-L1
b. T12-L3
c. L3-L5
d. L5-S2

B

22

What types of crystals comprise 65% of all urinary calculi ?

a. Triple phosphate
b. Calcium oxalate
c. uric acid
d. xanthine

B

23

A 3 year old patient presents with a mass in the abdomen discovered by a family member. The patient experiences abdominal pain, distention, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fever, hematuria and hypertension. What is the most likely diagnosis?

a. Neuroblastoma
b. Wilm’s tumor
c. APKD
d. renal cell carcinoma

B

24

a 20 year old non-obese patient presents with sudden onset of glucosuria, low serum levels of insulin, polyuria, polydipsia, unexplained weight loss, and frequent urinary tract infections. These characteristic best describe:

a. Type 1 diabetes (IDDM)
b. Hypoglycemia
c. Type II diabetes (NIDDM)
d. hyperbilirubinemia

A

25

The following arterial route occurs after the renal artery enters the kidney at the renal hilus: (select the correct order) 1-interlobular, 2-arcuate, 3- segmental arteries, 4- interlobular

a. 3,4,2,1
b. 3,1,2,4
c. 1,2,4,3
d. 4,2,3,1

A

26

Diabetes insipidus is the result of a deficiency of ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

a. True
b. False

A

27

Diabetes mellitus, type 1 (juvenile onset) accounts for about 90% of all diabetic cases

a. True
b. False

B

28

Basement membrane damage, hypoalbuminemia, extreme proteinuria, and hypercholesterolemia are most indicative of

a. nephritic syndrome
b. acute GMN
c. nephrotic syndrome
d. vesicoureteral reflux

C

29

The left renal artery is shorter than the right renal artery

a. True
b. False

A

30

A 59 year old male with a history of cigarette smoking presents with blood in the urine, abnormal urine color, flank pain, weight loss, emaciated appearance, selling of the abdomen, and palpation indicates kidney enlargement. The most likely diagnosis for this patient would be

a. Diabetes
b. GMN
c. renal calculi
d. renal cell carcinoma

D

31

Renal calculi are most likely to be seen on x-ray than are gallstones
a. True
b. False

A

32

Hematuria and uremia are two terms that describe the same condition

a. True
b. False

B

33

Regurgitation of urine form the bladder into the ureter and usually the kidney is known as

a. vesicoureteral influx
b. urinary obstruction
c. nephrolithiasis
d. polycystic kidney disease

A

34

All types of kidney stones are seen on x-ray

a. True
b. False

B

35

Diabetes mellitus Type II (adult onset) is due to:

a. decreased ADH
b. anterior pituitary problems
c. increased ADH
d. decreased target cell sensitivity

D

36

which of the following conditions typically has the poorest prognosis

a. pyelonephritis
b. renal cell carcinoma
c. nephroblastoma
d. polycystic kidney disease

B

37

An inflammatory connective tissue disorder of unknown etiology, with 90% of those stricken being female, best describes

a. SLE
b. parkinson’s
c. rheumatic fever
d. multiple sclerosis

A

38

Urinary catheters are designed with a special compartment that inflate within the urinary bladder to keep the catheter from sliding out of the urethra

a. True
b. False

A

39

A 22 month old child presents with fever, abdominal pain, abdominal mass, weight loss, anemia, bone pain and periorbital ecchymoses. This is a very rare condition and would most likely be:

a. Tetanus
b. neuroblastoma
c. child abuse
d. post-streptococcal glomerulonephrits

B

40

Red blood cell casts in the urine are usually considered to be a pathognomonic indication of:

a. pyelonephritis
b. glomerulonephritis
c. diabetes mellitus
d. polycystic kidney disease

B

41

The kidneys normally utilize ____% of the cardiac output

a. 10
b. 25
c. 50
d. none of the above

B

42

E. Coli is the predominant pathogen involved with pyelonephritis

a. True
b. False

A

43

High dietary sodium intake can cause an increase in urinary calcium excretion

a. True
b. False

A

44

Eclampsia includes all of the following except:

a. edema
b. hypertension
c. elevated A:G ration
d. proteinuria

D

45

Kidney stones (urinary calculi) are usually found in combination with a noncrystalline matrix material, the function of which is unknown

a. True
b. False

A

46

Which of the following is not characteristic of Type II diabetes?

a. Sudden onset
b. obese patient (90%)
c. usually over 30 years of age
d. negative for antibodies to islet cells

A

47

The majority of the world’s male population circumcised

a. true
b. false

B

48

One of the most common lab indications of renal failure is the increase of BUN (blood-urea-nitrogen) levels

a. True
b. False

A

49

Which of the following syndromes are found predominantly in children?

a. Wilm’s tumor
b. Chronic renal failure
c. post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
d. two of the above

A

50

The greater the number of kidney stones, the more sever the symptoms

a. True
b. False

B