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LING 330: Phonetics > MT 1 Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in MT 1 Review Deck (7)
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1

Physiology

the science concerned with the function of biological systems

2

Anatomy

concerned with defining, observing and classifying the structural properties of bones, muscles, cells...

3

Physiological Method of describing speech production

indicates which elements have a functional value with regard to speech production and which anatomical elements are irrelevatn

4

Physiological phonetics

the discipline that includes both anatomical and physiological concepts

5

Discuss organs of speech

There are no specific organs of speech. The organs relevant to speech have primary biological functions.

6

Is speech an overlaid function?

No. The organs relevant to speech have the shape and position they do due to adaptive evolution.

Argument 1: Slant of the ribs. In infants the ribs are perpendicular to the spine whereas in adults they slant downwards which allows for the regulation of sub glottal air pressure, essential for speech.

Argument 2: descent of the larynx. In infants the larynx is positioned high allowing for breathing and eating at the same time whereas in adults the larynx is descended to lengthen the space between the lips and the larynx and allow for resonance. This means the digestive and respiratory pathways cross in the pharynx and there is a risk of choking.

Argument 3: laryngeal modifications. The arytenoid cartilages restrict the airway to 50% of the tracheal cross section. The deficiency resulting with respect to respiration provides a functional advantage for phonation. Trade-off of efficient respiration for phonation.

7

Name the three physiological components of speech production.

1. SLVT: oral cavity, nasal cavity, pharyngeal cavity.
2. Larynx
3. Subglottal system: lungs, respiratory muscles, bronchi, trachea.