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Flashcards in MT-4 Deck (78):
1

Definition of "Rabid animal"

Animal in which unquestionable laboratory test has confirmed rabies

2

Definition of "Rabies risky animal"

- Any animal that has attacked or bitten humans OR
- Any dog that has not received anti-rabies vaccination in accordance with the regulations

3

Definition of "Potential rabid animal"

- Animal that shows symptoms of the disease or
- An animal that is symptomless but has been bitten by a potentially rabid animal AND
- A wild animal that behaved strangely or attacks humans

4

Definition of "Potentially rabies infected animal"

An animal that has or may have contacted with rabid or potentially rabid animal within the last 90 days

5

Public health for rabies

The official vet shall notify the competent regional national health authority in case:
- He or she confirms rabies or potential rabies
- He or she becomes aware of the fact that a rabid, potentially rabid, or potentially rabid infected animal has bitten any person
- Upon the detection of any wound caused by a dog, cat or wild animal, the physician caring for the wound shall immediately notify in writing the competent official veterinary authority about the information available with regard to the circumstances of the case including, in particular, the name and home address of the animal keeper
- Based on such notifications, the official veterinarian shall take the necessary measures without delay
The autopsy of the rabid or potentially rabid animal or the removal of its head for diagnostic purposes may be performed only in protective clothes to exclude the risk of infections

6

Vaccination in case of rabies

The animal keeper, at his or her expense, shall arrange the vaccination of all dogs above 3 months of age to be performed by a private veterinarian responsible for the animal health supervision of such dogs as follows:
- Within 30 days after reaching 3 months of age
- Within 6 months after their first vaccination
- Every year afterwards

7

Official measures in case of potentially rabid animal

- Potentially rabid domestic animal or susceptible animals kept in captivity shall be killed or upon request of the animal's keeper put under official monitoring for 90 days
- The animal showing clinical signs must be inspected daily, while animals not showing clinical signs, inspected weekly
- Potentially rabid stray or wild animal must be killed, and the official veterinarian must be informed without delay

8

Official measures in case of rabies risky animals

- Potentially rabies risky animal shall be put under official monitoring for 14 days, and unless they already have it, the dog shall be marked with an electronic transponder (micro ship implanted under the skin)
- At the end of the monitoring period, the dog shall receive an anti-rabies vaccination in case it dies not have a valid anti-rabies vaccination

9

Official measures in case of potentially rabies infected animals

- Potentially rabies infected animals shall be put under official monitoring for 90 days
- Potentially rabies infected carnivores animal shall be monitors under separation at the place of their keeping, inspected once every 3 weeks or if their safe separation is not possible at an official place
- Potentially rabies infected non-carnivorous animals shall be inspected once every 3 weeks. During the monitoring, the animal shall be kept isolated to avoid contact with humans and with other animals

10

Preventive measures of duck viral enteritis

- No free keeping on natural water during the 2 weeks before egg-laying period
- Infect d natural water: no susceptible birds for 2 years except vaccinate broiler ducks
- Breeding and broiler flocks shall not be kept together

11

Official surveillance of duck viral enteritis &
Movement restrictions

- Birds showing clinical signs: killing
- No clinical signs:
--> Immediate slaughter: heat treated meat products or vaccination (recovered flock):
--> 30 days observation, no breeding, movement restriction until slaughter or
--> 28 days of observation, hatching eggs are disinfected, separate hatching (2 checks during hatching), separate fattening of the hatched birds

12

Common rules for disease control of duck viral enteritits

- Notification
- Harmonized control measures
- Uniformity of diagnostic procedures
- Contingency plans
- Epidemiological units
- Financial support

13

Regionalization of duck viral enteritis

- Apply strict controls to a defined area of the community to control and eradicate a disease
- Prevent spread of disease from the defined area
- Permit free movement of animal/product outside the defined area

14

Qualification of flocks in fowl typhoid

Blood tests
- 1st 3 weeks before production period
- 2nd 20-25% production
Non-vaccinated flock:
- 2x10% from the building
- if + test all
- if +>3% --> infected flock
- +<3%, identification, isolation, blood sample for laboratory examination at vet institute
Vaccinated flock:
- Blood test before vaccination or bacteriology of dead eggs or day-old chickens
- Blood test at institute of minimum 20 animals

15

Free pedigree or grand parent flock in fowl typhoid

- All + at the 2nd test <0.5%
- Infected birds are eliminated
- Bacteriology of dead eggs and day-old chickens

16

Free parent and production flock in fowl typhoid

- Birds originate from free flock
- All +<1%
- Infected birds are eliminated
- Bacteriology of dead eggs and day-old chickens
- Individual identification of hatching eggs
- Only eggs originating from free flock may be hatched

17

Day-old chickens in fowl typhoid

- During the first 5 days of life minimum 1 sample for lab examination
- <10 carcasses: all
- 11-50 carcasses: 10
- >50 carcasses every 5th, maximum 50

18

Definition? of "diseased animal in fowl typhoid"

Typical clinical signs or pathological lesions:
- Detection of causative agent
Infected animal:
- Detection of antibodies
Infected egg:
- Detection of causative agent
Infected breeding flock:
- No vaccination
- Infected animals >3% or
- Diseased animal
Suspected of being infected breeding flock:
- No vaccination
- Infected animals 1-3%

19

Definition of "Avian influenza"

A disease of poultry or other captive birds with influenza A virus
- of subtype H5 or H7 or
- with an intravenous pathogenicity index in 6 week old chicken greater than 1.2

20

Definition of "Highly pathogenic avian influenza"

An infection of poultry or other captive birds caused by
- avian influenza viruses of the subtypes H5 or H7 with genome sequences coding for multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site of hemagglutinin molecule, indicating that the hemagglutinin molecule can be cleaved by a host ubiquitous protease or
- avian influenza viruses with a intravenous pathogenicity index in 6 week old chickens greater than 1.2

21

Definition of "Low pathogenic avian influenza"

An infection of poultry or other captive birds caused by avian influenza viruses of subtypes H5 or H7 that do not come within the definition of HPAI

22

Differentiating infected from vaccinated animal (DIVA) strategy

- A vaccination strategy that enables differentiation to be made between vaccinated/infected and vaccinated/non-infected animals through the application of a diagnostic test designed to detect antibodies against the field virus and the use of non-vaccinated sentinel birds

23

Measures to be applied on holding when HPAI outbreaks are confirmed

- All poultry and other captive birds on the holding shall be killed without delay under official supervision
- Member states may grant derogations for certain species of poultry or other captive birds not to be killed, based on assessment of the risk of further spread of avian influenza
- All carcasses and eggs shall be disposed of under official supervision
- Poultry already hatched from eggs collected from the holding during the period between the probably introduction of HPAI and the application of stamping out, wherever possible, be placed under official supervision
- Meat of poultry slaughtered and eggs collected from the holding during the period between the probably introduction of HPAI on the holding and the application of measures of stamping out measures shall, wherever possible, be traced and disposed under official supervision
- All substances and waste likely to be contaminated, such as feed, shall be destroyed or undergo treatment to ensure the destruction of the avian influenza virus
- The buildings used for housing, pastures or land, the equipment and the vehicles, likely to be contaminated shall undergo treatment
- Other captive birds or mammals of domestic species shall not enter or leave the holding without the authorization of the competent authority. That restriction shall not apply to mammals of domestic species which have access only to the living areas of humans
- In the case of primary outbreak the virus isolate shall be subjected to the laboratory procedure to identify the genetic subtype

24

Derogations in case of HPAI

Non-commercial holding, a circus, a zoo, a bird pet shop, a wildlife park, a fenced area where poultry or other captive birds are kept for scientific purposes or purposes related to the conservation of endangered species or officially registered rare breeds of poultry or other captive birds, provided that such derogations do not endanger disease control

25

Measures in the protection zone in case of avian influenza

- A census of all the holdings is made as soon as possible
- All commercial holdings are visited by an official veterinarian as soon as possible for a clinical examination of the poultry and other captive birds and, if necessary, the collection of samples for lab tests; a record of such visits and the findings thereof shall be kept
- Non-commercial holdings are visited by an official veterinarian before the lifting of the protection zone
- Additional surveillance is immediately implemented in order to identify any further spread of avian influenza in the holdings located in the protection zone

26

Measures on holding in protection zone

• All poultry and other captive birds are brought inside a building on their holding and kept there. Minimise their contact with wild birds;
• Carcases are disposed of as soon as possible;
• Vehicles and equipment likely to be contaminated, undergo treatment without delay;
• All parts of vehicles used by staff or other persons are likely to have become contaminated undergo treatment without delay ;
• No poultry, other captive birds or domestic mammals may enter or leave a holding without authorisation of the competent authority. This restriction shall not apply to mammals which have access only to the living areas for humans in which they: - have no contact with resident poultry or other captive birds, and -  have no access to any cages or areas where such resident poultry or other captive birds are kept;
• Any increased morbidity or mortality or significant drop in production data in holdings is immediately reported to the competent authority
• Any person entering or leaving holdings observes appropriate biosecurity measures aimed at preventing the spread of avian influenza;
• Records of all persons visiting holdings, except dwellings, are kept by the owner in order to facilitate disease surveillance and control and must be made available upon request by the competent authority.
• Fairs, markets, shows or other gatherings of poultry or other captive birds are prohibited in protection zones.
• Poultry or other captive birds for restocking of game are not released in protection zones.
• The movement and transport from holdings on to roads, excluding private service roads of holdings, or by rail, of poultry, other captive birds, ready-to-lay poultry, day-old chicks, eggs and carcases are prohibited.
• These prohibitions shall not apply to transit through the protection zone on roads or rail without unloading or stopping.
• The measures shall be maintained for at least 21 days following the date of completion of preliminary cleansing and disinfection on the infected holding and until holdings located in the protection zone have been tested.
• When the measures are no longer to be maintained, the measures for surveillance zone shall apply in the former protection zone.

27

Measures to be applied on the holding where LPAI outbreaks are confirmed

• official surveillance and movement restriction are applied on the basis of a risk assessment
• All poultry on the holding and other captive birds of species in which LPAI has been confirmed are depopulation under official surveillance in such a way as to prevent the spread of avian influenza
• The depopulation may be extended to other captive birds on the holding based on the assessment of the risk that they pose as regards further spread of avian influenza and to other holdings that may be considered as contact holdings, based on the epidemiological inquiry.
• Before depopulation, no poultry or other captive birds shall enter or leave the holding, unless authorised by the competent authority.
• The competent authority shall decide that the poultry or other captive birds are:
killed as soon as possible, or slaughtered in a designated slaughterhouse.
• When depopulation is by slaughter in a designated slaughterhouse, the poultry shall be subjected to further surveillance and testing.
• Carcases, and hatching eggs on the holding are disposed
• The measures of official surveillance and movement restrictions are applied to contact holdings until the presence of LPAI has been excluded
• Immediately following an outbreak of LPAI, the competent authority shall establish a restricted zone with a radius of at least 1 kilometre around the holding

28

Repopulation of holdings in case of avian influenza

21 days following the completion of the final cleansing and disinfection

29

Strict disinfection in case of avian influenza

• Preliminary cleansing and disinfection
• Final cleansing and disinfection

30

Official measures in case of confirmation of Newcastle disease on a holding

• all poultry are killed on the spot
• the carcasses and eggs are destroyed
• any substance or waste liable to be contaminated is destroyed or treated
• the meat of poultry slaughtered during the presumed incubation period is traced and destroyed
• hatching eggs laid during the presumed incubation period is traced and destroyed, poultry which hatched from such eggs are placed under official surveillance
• thorough cleaning and disinfection
• reintroduction at least 21 days after the end of the disinfection operations

31

Official measures in case of confirmation of Newcastle disease in pigeons

• application of the control and eradication measures provided for the poultry
• or at least a ban on movement of the pigeons or birds kept in captivity for at least 60 days
• destruction or treatment of any matter or waste likely to be contaminated
• an epizootiological inquiry
• use of swill is prohibited for the feeding of poultry
• contingency plan

32

Newcastle disease infected poultry

• examination by an approved laboratory or
• in case of secondary outbreaks: clinical symptoms or post mortem lesions consistent with Newcastle disease are present

33

Poultry suspected of being infected with Newcastle Disease

• clinical symptoms or post mortem lesions which are such that the presence of Newcastle disease may be reasonably suspected

34

Poultry suspected of being contaminated with Newcastle Disease

• poultry which may have been directly or indirectly exposed to the Newcastle Disease virus

35

Official measures in case of suspicion of Newcastle Disease

• official supervision
• samples
• a record of all categories of poultry
• poultry to be kept isolated in their living quarters
• no poultry allowed to enter or leave the holding
• movement of people, vehicles, material are subject of official authorization
• table eggs: disinfection or heat treatment
• disinfection at the entrance of buildings housing poultry and the holding itself
• epizootiological inquiry

36

Official measures in case of confirmation of African Swine Fever on a holding

• all the pigs on the holding are killed and their carcasses processed
• all contaminated material or waste must be destroyed, processed or treated
• cleaning and disinfection of all premises, vehicles and equipment under official supervision
• meat of pigs slaughtered during the period between the probable introduction of the disease and the taking of official measures shall be traced and processed when possible under official supervision
• protection zone: a radius of at least 3 km
• surveillance zone: a radius of at least 10 km
- census of all the holdings
- ban on the movement and transport of pigs
- movement restrictions of products, vehicles,
people
- no markets. fairs, gatherings
- strict cleaning, disinfection, disinsectisation

37

Official measures in case of suspected cases of African Swine Fever

• official surveillance
• restrictions on the movement of pigs, pig carcasses, pig products, persons and vehicles
• epidemiological inquiry

38

Suspicion or confirmation of ASF in a slaughter house or means of transport

• all susceptible pigs must be killed
• all material from contaminated animals must be processed
• cleaning, disinfection and disinsectisation of buildings, equipment and vehicles under official supervision
• epidemiological inquiry

39

Suspicion or confirmation of ASF in feral pigs

• expert group to provide possible assistance, to define the infected area and establish the measures to be applied
• placing domestic pig holdings in the defined infected area under official supervision
• official census of all categories of pigs on all holdings
• all pigs on holding must be kept isolated from feral pigs
• no pigs can enter or leave the holding unless authorized
• written plan of measures to be take to eradicate the disease in the infected area
• geographical distribution
• information campaign to hunters
• method to remove pigs found dead or shot
• surveillance and prevention methods to holding in the infected area '
• transport and movement of animals within, to or from the area
• ban on moving pigs, their semen, embryos or ova from the infected area from intra-Community trade

40

Occurrence of disease (African Swine Fever) has been linked to vectors

• restocking shall not take place for at least 6 years unless o specific operations to eliminate the vector from the premises and places where the pigs are kept or areas that pigs have access to o it has been possible to show that the vectors no longer represent a significant risk to transmit the disease

41

Definition of "Pig free of Aujeszky Disease"

• virus, antigen or DNA is not detected
• gB-ELISA negative
• kept in free herd

42

Definition of "Pig infected with Aujeszky Disease"

• clinical signs, pathological lesions and epidemiological link
• virus, antigen or DNA detection
• gB-ELISA positive

43

Suspected of being infected with Aujeszky Disease

• suspicious clinical signs, pathological lesions
• presence of virus, antigen or DNA is not excluded
• contact with infected animals within 40 days or inseminated with infected animal

44

Infected herd with Aujeszky Disease

• confirmed disease or infection
• movement restrictions
• elimination of the herd until the end of the production period (max. 7 months)
• state compensation

45

Aujeszky Disease control of free status: regular testing

• large scale holding
• all boars every 6 months
• sows: 20-50% every 6 months
• representative sample from fattening pigs
• small holding
• all boars and sows every year
• 5% of pigs over 4 months
• artificial insemination center: test every 6 months

46

Definition of Aujeszky disease free swine herd

• No infection for 2 years
•Epidemiological conditions (eg. isolation, controlled movements, laboratory examinations, records)
• No vaccination
•Testing of all breeding sows and boars and representative sample of fattening pigs
•Insemination or natural breeding with negative semen/boars

47

Definition? of "Rabies infection"

- Rabies is caued by neurotropic viruses of the genus Lyssavirus in the family Rhabdoviridae, and is transmissible to all mammals
- As the viruses are transmissible to humans, all suspected infected material must be handled under the appropiate safety conditions

48

Rules of autopsy on rabid or potentially rabid animals

- Only the official veterinarian may perform an autopsy on the carcasses of rabid and potentially rabid animals
- The autopsy shall be limited to the taking of samples for the lab tests

49

Official measures for rabies-risky carnivorous animals

- The rabies-risky carnivorous animals shall be monitored on the dog keeper's site or, in lack of that, on any other site available and suitable for such purpose inhibiting any contact with humans and other animals
- The animals showing any clinical symptoms shall be inspected daily until they are fully recovered, while the animals not showing clinical symptoms shall be inspected weekly
- The rabies-risky non-carnivorous animals shall be monitored at the place of their keeping or separation

50

Official measures in case of confirmation of Classical Swine Fever on a holding

- All the pigs on the holding are killed and their carcasses rendered
- Any material or waste likely to be contaminated is destroyed, rendered or processed
- Cleaning and disinfection under official supervision
- Meat of pigs slaughtered during the period between the probable introduction of the disease and the taking of official measures shall be traced and processed when possible
- Epidemiological inquiry

51

Official measures in case of confirmation of Classical Swine Fever in feral pigs

- Determination of infected area
- Official surveillance on the pig holdings in the area
- Official census
- Isolation of domestic pigs from feral pigs
- No pigs enter or leave the holding without authorization
- Written plan of the measures taken to eradicate the disease in the infected area
- Collect information on the:
- Geographical distribution of the disease
- Information campaign to increase hunters
awareness
- Approximate number of feral pig population in
and around the infected area
- Method of removal of feral pigs found dead or
shot

52

Use of vaccination in case of confirmation of Classical Swine Fever

- Use of preventive vaccines is prohibited
- The memeber states concerned may submit an emergency vaccination plan to the commission for both farm and feral pigs

53

Official measures in case of suspected presence of Classical Swine Fever on a holding

- Official supervision
- Movement to and from the holding is prohibited or subject to authorization
- Access ways to the holding and means of transport leaving it must be disinfected

54

Repopulation of a holding affected by Classical Swine Fever

- Minimum 30 days after the completion of the cleaning and disinfection operations
- Open air holdings: full repopulation may take place only if none of the sentinel pigs have developed anitbodies against the virus (test: 40 days)

55

Confirmation of Classical Swine Fever at a slaughterhouse or means of transport

- All suspected animals are present must be killed
- New animals may not be reintroduced until 24 hours after the completion of cleaning and disinfection
- The carcasses, offal and animal waste of possible contaminated pigs must be processed under official supervision

56

Confirmation of Swine Vesicular Disease

- Virus isolation from the pigs or from the enviroment
- Seropositive pigs + characteristic lesions
- Clinical signs + direct epidemiological connection with a confirmed outbreak

57

Confirmation of Swine Vesicular Disease in a slaughterhouse

- All pigs in the slaughterhouse are slaughtered without delay
- The carcasses and offal of infected and contaminated pigs are destroyed
- Cleaning and disinfection
- Epidemiological inquiry
- No pigs are reintroduced for slaughter until at least 24 hours after completion of the cleaning and disinfection operations

58

Restocking of infected holdings in case of Swine Vesicular Disease

- 4 weeks after completion of the first full disinfection of the premises
- Outdoor pig holdings:
--> Negative sentinel piglets: examined clinically and sampled for serological testing after 28 days
--> Full restocking
- Other forms of rearing
--> Within a period of 8 days
--> Seronegative pigs
--> No pig may leave the holding for a period of 60 days after the arrival of the last pigs
--> Clinical and serological examination: 28 days after the arrival of the last pigs

59

Diseased animals in case of Teschovirus Encephalitis

Typical clinical signs + histopathology or lab examinatin

60

Suspected of being diseased in case of Teschovirus Encephalitis

Non-typical clinical signs

61

Teschovirus Encephalitis on a small holding

- All diseased and suspected of being diseased pigs are killed on the spot
- Suspected og being contaminated --> separate slaughter, heat treatment

62

Suspected of being contaminated in case of Teschovirus Encephalitis

40 days

63

Teschovirus Encephalitis on large scale holding

- All diseased and suspected of being diseased pigs are killed on the spot
- Suspected of being contaminated
--> Observation for 40 days
--> If slaughtered, heat treatment

64

Lifting restrictions in case of Teschovirus Encephalitis

- Strict disinfection (repeated 14 days)
- Observation period: 40 days
- Protection zone: 40 days

65

Slaughter technique in case of Teschovirus Encephalitis

- Removal of the intestinal tract
- Intact nervous system (special paravertebral cut of the carcass)
- Heat treatment: 70'C for 20 min

66

Definition of specified risk material in bovine animals (BSE)

- The skull, excluding the mandible, including the brain and eyes and the spinal cord of animals over 12 months of age
- The vertebral column, excluding the vertebrae of the tail, the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae and thoracic vertebrae and the wings of the sacrum but including the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord of animals over 30 months of age
- The tonsils and intestines from duodenum to the rectum and the mesentery of animal of all ages

67

Definition of specified risk material in ovine and caprine animals

- The skull, including the brain and eyes, the tonsils, and the spinal cord of animals over 12 months of age or which have permanent incisor erupted through the gum
- The spleen and ileum of animals of all ages

68

Definition of "cohort" in case of confirmation of BSE

A group of bovine animals which were either born in the same herd as, within 12 months proceeding or following the birth of the affected cattle or reared together with the infected animal at any time during the first year of life and which may have consumed the same feed as that which the affected animal consumed during the first year of life

69

BSE monitoring system (which groups of animals shall be monitored?)

- All bovine animals over 24 months sent for emergency slaughter or with observations at ante mortem inspection
- All bovine animals above 30 (48) months of age slaughtered normally of human consumption
- All bovine animals above 24 months of age which have died or been killed on the farm, during transport or in a slaughterhouse (fallen stock)
- All ovine or caprine animals above 18 months of age or which have more than 2 permanent incisors erupted through the gum
- All ovine or caprine animals which are over 18 months of age or have more than 2 incisors erupted, which died or were killed not as past of an eradication campaign

70

Measures in case of BSE suspected animals

- Any animal suspected of being infected with TSE is placed under official movement restriction until the results of clinical examination and epidemiological examinations are known or must be killed for lab examination
- If BSE suspected at a holding in a member state, all other bovine animals are also put under movement restrictions until results of lab examinations
- The same applies for ovine and caprine animals

71

Measures in case of BSE infections

- Inquiry to identify the possible origin of the disease and all other animals and their products which may be contaminated
- In case of confirmed BSE --> killing and complete destruction of bovine animals identified by the inquiry
- In ovine and caprine --> killing and complete destruction of all animals, embryos and ova identified
- Only certain ovine and caprine animals of a known genotype may be introduced onto a holding where destruction has taken place because of a TSE outbreak
- Pending results of the inquiry the infected holding is placed under official control and movement restriction

72

Determination of BSE status

- The results of a risk analysis based on the following factors:
--> consumption by bovine animals of meat and bone meal or greaves derived from ruminants
--> importation of such meat and bone meal or greaves potentially contaminated by a TSE agent
--> importation of potentially infected animals or ova/embryos; the epidemiological status of the country or region in regards to TSEs
--> knowledge about the structure of bovine, ovine and caprine population of the zone in question
--> source and treatment of animal waste and the methods of producing animal feed

73

Monitoring system of BSE

- Each member state must carry out an annual programme for monitoring BSE and scrapie (TSE), which includes a screening programme using rapid tests
- Besides the compulsary controls for all animals which show signs making it possible to suspect a TSE, rapid post mortem screening must be performed on:
--> all bovine animals above 24 months of age sent for emergency slaughter or with observations at ante mortem inspections
--> all bovine animals above 30 (48) months of age slaughtered normally for human consumption
--> all bovine animals above 24 months of age not slaughtered for human consumption, which have died or been killed on the farm, during transport or in a slaughterhouse (fallen stock)
--> all ovine or caprine animals over 18 months of age or which have more than two permanent incisors erupted through the gum
--> all ovine or caprine animals, not intended for human consumption, which are over 18 months of age or have more than two permanent incisors erupted through the gum, and which have died or been killed, but not as part of an eradication campaign

74

Definition of official Enzootic Bovine Leucosis free herd

- There is no evidence, either clinical or as a result of lab tests, of any case of Enzootic Bovine Leucosis in the herd and no such case has been confirmed in the previous 2 years and
- All animals over 24 months of age have reacted negatively during the proceeding 12 months to two tests carried out at an interval of at least 4 months or is situated in an official Enzootic Bovine Leucosis free member state or origin

75

Retaining officially free status of Enzootic Bovine Leucosis

- Any animals introduced into the herd come from an officially Enzootic Bovine Leucosis free herd
- All animals over 24 months of age continue to react negatively to a test carried out at intervals of 3 years
- Breeding animals introduced into a herd and originating from a third country have been imported in accordance with EU rules

76

Free status suspension in Enzootic Bovine Leucosis

The official Leucosis-free status of a herd is to be suspended if the conditions are not fulfilled or where as a result of lab tests or on clinical grounds one or more bovine animals are suspected of having Enzootic Bovine Leucosis and the suspect animal(s) are immediately slaughtered

77

Requirements to lift suspension (EBL)

- If a single animal in an officially free herd has reacted positively or where infection is otherwise suspected in one animal in a herd
- The animal which has reacted positively and in case of a cow, any calf it may have produced must left the herd for slaughter under the supervision of the veterinary authority
- All animals in the herd more than 12 months old have reacted negatively to 2 serological tests carried out at least 3 months after removal of the positive animal and any possible progeny thereof
- Epidemiological inquiry has been conducted with negative results and the herds linked epidemiologically to the infected herd have been tested

78

Requirement in case of Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (multiple animals)

- More than one animal from an officially free herd has reacted positively or where the infection has been suspected in more than one animal in a herd
- Any animals which have reacted positively and in case of cows, their calves, must be removed for slaughter under the supervision of the veterinary authority
- All animals over 12 months of age must react negatively to 2 tests carried out at least 4 months and no more than 12 months
- All other animals in the herd must, after identification, remain on the holding until they are aged over 24 months and have been tested after reaching that age, except that the competent authority may permit such animals to go directly for slaughter under official supervision
- Epidemiological inquiry has been conducted with negative results and the herds linked epidemiologically to the infected herd have been tested