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Flashcards in Minimum Questions Deck (38):
1

Definition of animals suspected of being infected with anthrax

• were in contact with animal that died of, is diseased or suspicious to anthrax within 20 days before confirmation
• consumed feedstuff or water of the same origin as that of an animal that died of, is diseased or suspicious to anthrax
• grazed on a pasture infected with anthrax without vaccination 2 weeks to 6 months before

2

Definition of animals diseased by anthrax

• typical clinical signs
• characteristic lesions in the organs (post mortem, meat inspection)
• laboratory diagnostics

3

Official measures in case of animals diseased with anthrax

• separation
• immediate treatment
• change of feedstuffs, drinking water, no grazing

4

Official measures in case of animals suspected of being infected with anthrax

• vaccination and 14 day observation
• cattle and horses: take temperature
• sheep, goats and pigs: daily observation
• in case of clinical signs or fever: treatment

5

Official measures in case of confirmation of African swine fever on a holding

- all the pigs on the holding are killed and their carcasses processed
- all contaminated material or waste must be destroyed, processed or treated
- cleaning and disinfection of all premises, vehicles and equipment under official supervision
- meat of pigs slaughtered during the period between the probable introduction of the disease and the taking of official measures shall be traced and processed when possible under official supervision
- protection zone: a radius of at least 3 km
- surveillance zone: a radius of at least 10 km
--> census of all the holdings
--> ban on the movement and transport of pigs
--> movement restrictions of products, vehicles, people
--> no markets. fairs, gatherings
--> strict cleaning, disinfection, disinsectisation

6

Official measures in case of confirmation of African swine fever on holdings where the occurrence of disease has been linked to vectors

In the case of holdings where the occurrence of disease has been
linked to vectors, restocking shall not take place for at least
6 years unless:
--> specific operations to eliminate the vector from the premises
and places where the pigs are to be kept or can come into
contact with the vector have been successfully carried out
under official supervision, or
--> it has been possible to show that the persistence of the vector
no longer represents a significant risk of African swine fever
being transmitted.

7

Definition of Aujeszky's disease free swine herd

- No infection for 2 years
- Epidemiological conditions (eg. isolation, controlled movements, laboratory examinations, records)
- No vaccination
- Testing of all breeding sows and boars and representative sample of fattening pigs
- Insemination or natural breeding with negative semen/boars

8

Definition of officially Brucellosis free bovine herd

• no clinical signs (for minimum 6 moths)
• no vaccination
• all animals over 12 months of age
• two serological tests (3-12 month interval) or
• 3 milk tests (3 month interval) + 6 weeks later serology
• animals introduced originate from official free heard or tested (within 30 days)
• regular testing (every year)
• general measures (isolation of the holding, records of laboratory exams, separate calving, movement control of visitors, animals, vehicles, control of dogs and cats on the holding)

9

Definition of positive single intradermal tuberculin test

If clinical signs are observed or there is an increase of 4 mm or more in the thickness of the fold of skin at the injection site

10

Definition of inconclusive single intradermal tuberculin test

No clinical signs and the increase in the skin fold thickness is more than 2 mm and less than 4 mm

11

Definition of negative single intradermal tuberculin test

The skin fold thickness increase is not more than 2 mm and there are no clinical signs

12

Definition of positive comparative intradermal tuberculin test

A positive bovine reaction which is more than 4 mm greater than that of the avian reaction or clinical signs

13

Definition of inconclusive comparative intradermal tuberculin test

A positive or inconclusive bovine reaction which is from 1-4 mm greater than the avian reaction and there are no clinical signs

14

Definition of negative comparative intradermal tuberculin test

• a negative bovine reaction
• or a positive or inconclusive bovine reaction that is equal or less than a pos-itive or inconclusive avian reaction and there are no clinical signs

15

Definition of tuberculosis free bovine herd

• no clinical signs
• all animals over 6 weeks of age: 2 official intradermal tuberculin test
• 1st: 6 months after removal of infected animals
• 2nd: 6 months later or 60 days after collection from free herds
• animal introduced originate from official free hearts or tested within 30 days
• meat inspection, lesion: compulsory investigation
• yearly tuberculin test
• general epidemiological measures (isolation of the holding, record of labor-atory examinations, movement control of visitors, animals and vehicles, control of dogs and cats on the holding)

16

Definition of specified risk material in bovine animals

• the skull, excluding the mandible, including the brain and eyes and the spi-nal cord of animals over 12 months of age
• the vertebral column, excluding the vertebrae of the tail, the transverse pro-cesses of the lumbar vertebrae and thoracic vertebrae and the wings of the sacrum but including the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord of animals over 30 months of age
• the tonsils and intestines from the duodenum to the rectum and the mesen-tery of animal of all ages

17

Definition of specified risk material in ovine and caprine animals

• the skull, including the brain and eyes, the tonsils, and the spinal cord of an-imals over 12 months of age or which have permanent incisor erupted through the gum
• the spleen and ileum of animal of all ages

18

Definition of "cohort" in case of confirmation of BSE

A group of bovine animals which were either born in the same herd as, within 12 moths preceding or following the birth of the affected cattle or reared together with the infected animal at any time during the first year of life and which may have consumed the same feed as that which the affected animal consumed during the first year of life

19

Official measures in case of confirmation of Classical Swine Fever on a holding

- all the pigs on the holding are killed and their carcasses rendered
- any material or waste likely to be contaminated is destroyed, rendered or processed
- cleaning and disinfection under official supervision
- meat of pigs slaughtered during the period between the probable introduction of the disease and the taking of official measures shall be traced and processed when possible
- epidemiological inquiry

20

Official measures in case of confirmation of Classical Swine Fever in feral pigs

- determination of the infected area
- official surveillance on the pig holdings in the area
- official census
- isolation of domestic pigs from feral pigs
- no pigs enter or leave the holding without authorization
- written plan of the measures taken to eradicate the disease in the infected area
- collect information on the
--> geographical distribution of the disease
--> information campaign to increase hunters awareness
--> approximate number of feral pig population in and around the infected area
--> method of removal of feral pigs found dead or shot

21

Use of vaccination in case of confirmation of classical swine fever

- Use of preventative vaccines is prohibited
- The Member State concerned may submit an emergency vaccination plan to the Commission for both farm and feral pigs
- Marker vaccine means a vaccine that can elicit a protective immunity distinguishable from the immune response elicited by the natural infection with the wild type virus by means of laboratory tests

22

Definition of animals diseased with equine infectious anaemia

• typical clinical signs or
• non-typical clinical signs but demonstration of the virus and/or 2 positive serology (interval of 21 days)
• pathology, histopathology

23

Definition of animals suspected of being contaminated with equine infectious anaemia

• kept within 90 days with diseased or suspected of being diseased animals
• no clinical signs but 2 inconclusive or 1 positive serology (interval of 21 days)

24

Rules of taking samples in case of FMD suspicion

• 1 gram of tissue from an enraptured or recently ruptured vesicle
• Epithelium samples should be placed in a transport medium which main-tains a pH of 7.2-7.4
• Samples should be kept at 4 C
• Esophageal-pharyngeal fluid collected by means of a probing cup

25

Use of vaccination in case of confirmation of FMD

• trade of vaccinated animals is prohibited
• vaccinated animals from tested herds may be
moved within the Member State
• a system of traceability ensures that they are
excluded from Community trade
• emergency vaccination
• classification of herds
• animals must be clearly identified, registered and
must not be moved
• specific measures in the vaccination zone to the
movements of animals and their products
• clinical and serological survey

26

Evaluation of ophthalmic test in case of glanders

- 24 hour rest
- 0.2 ml mallein dripped onto the conjunctivitis
- Evaluation
--> after 8-12 or 16-24 hours
--> positive: swelling, purulent discharge
--> inconclusive: mucous discharge
--> negative

27

Definition of potentially rabid animals

- An animal that shows symptoms of the disease, or
- An animal that is symptomless but has been bitten by a potentially rabid animal, and
- A wild mammal which behaves strangely or attacks humans

28

Definition of potentially rabies-infected animals

An animal that has or may have contacted with rabid or potentially rabid animal within the last 90 days

29

Definition of rabies risky animals

- Any mammal that has attacked or bitten humans OR
- Any dog that has not received anti-rabies vaccination in accordance with the regulations

30

Official measures with potentially rabid animals

- Potentially rabid domestic animal or susceptible animals kept in captivity shall be killed or upon the request of the animal’s keeper put under official monitoring for 90 days. The animal showing CS must be inspected daily, while animals not showing CS, inspected weekly.
- Potentially rabied stray or wild animal must be killed, and the official veterinarian must be informed without delay.

31

Official measures with potentially rabies-infected animals

- Potentially rabies infected animals shall be put under official monitoring for 90 days.
- Potentially rabies infected carnivorous animal shall be monitored under separation at the place of their keeping, inspected once every 3 weeks or if their safe separation is not possible at an official place.
- Potentially rabies infected non-carnivorous animals shall be inspected once every 3 weeks. During the monitoring, the animal shall be kept isolated in order to avoid contact with humans and with other animals.

32

Official measures with potentially rabies-risky animals

Potentially rabies risky animal shall be put under official monitoring for 14 days, and unless they already have it , the dog shall be marked with an electronic transponder ( microchip implanted under the skin) . At the end of the monitoring period, the dog shall receive an anti-rabies vaccination in case it does not have a valid anti-rabies vaccination.

33

Rules of preventive vaccination of dogs against rabies

The animal keeper, at his or her expense, shall arrange the vaccination of all dogs above 3 months of age to be performed by a private veterinarian responsible for the animal health supervision of such dogs as follows:
- Within 30 days after reaching 3 months of
age
- Within 6 months after the first vaccination
- Every year afterwards

34

Definition of officially enzootic-bovine-leukosis-free herd

• there is no evidence, either clinical or as a result of lab test, of any case of enzootic bovine leucosis in the herd and no such case has been confirmed in the previous 2 years and
• all animals over 24 months of age have reacted negatively during the pre-ceding 12 months to two test carried out at an interval of at least 4 months or is situated in an officially enzootic bovine leucosis free Member State or region

35

Official measures in case of confirmation of Newcastle disease on a holding

- all poultry are killed on the spot
- the carcasses and eggs are destroyed
- any substance or waste liable to be contaminated is destroyed or treated
- the meat of poultry slaughtered during the presumed incubation period is traced and destroyed
- hatching eggs laid during the presumed incubation period is traced and destroyed, poultry which hatched from such eggs are placed under official surveillance
- thorough cleaning and disinfection
- reintroduction at least 21 days after the end of the disinfection operations

36

Official measures in case of confirmation of Newcastle disease in pigeon

- application of the control and eradication measures provided for the poultry
- or at least a ban on movement of the pigeons or birds kept in captivity for at least 60 days
- destruction or treatment of any matter or waste likely to be contaminated
- an epizootiological inquiry
- use of swill is prohibited for the feeding of poultry
- contingency plan

37

Definition of IBR-virus free bovine herd

• all animals over 6 months of age are tested 2X (interval 2-12 months)
• in dairy herd, milk samples 3X (2 month interval)
• IBR-free semen for insemination
• embryo-transfer from free parents
• introduced animals
• first blood or milk test is negative
• originating from free herd
• test during the 30 day isolation: 2X (21 days)

38

Maintanance of IBR-virus free status in bovine herd

• all animals over 6 months of age are tested every 12 months
• animals for slaughter are tested before transport for slaughter
• dairy herds have milk tested every 6 months
• aborted animals are tested 3-6 weeks after abortion
• only animals originating from free herd are introduced (2X, 21 day interval)