Culpable homicide is murder in each of the following cases:
(a) If the offender means to cause the Death of the person killed:
(b) If the offender means to cause to the person killed any Bodily injury that is known to the offender to be likely to cause death, and is reckless whether death ensues or not:
(c) If the offender means to cause death, or, being so reckless as aforesaid, means to cause such bodily injury as aforesaid to one person, and by Accident or mistake kills another person, though he does not mean to hurt the person killed:
(d) If the offender for any Unlawful Object does an act that he knows to be likely to cause death, and thereby kills any person, though he may have desired that his object should be effected without hurting any one.
Further Definition of Murder
(1) Culpable homicide is also murder in each of the following cases, whether the offender means or does not mean death to ensue, or knows or does not know that death is likely to ensue:
(a) If he means to cause grievous bodily injury for the purpose of facilitating the Commission of any of the offences mentioned in subsection (2) of this section, or facilitating the Flight or avoiding the detection of the offender upon the commission or attempted commission thereof, or for the purpose of Resisting lawful apprehension in respect of any offence whatsoever, and death ensues from such injury:
(b) If he administers any Stupefying or overpowering thing for any of the purposes aforesaid, and death ensues from the effects thereof:
(c) If he by any means wilfully stops the Breath of any person for any of the purposes aforesaid, and death ensues from such stopping of breath.
In a criminal law context there are two specific types of intention in an offence. Firstly there must be an intention to commit the act and secondly, an intention to get a specific result.
R v Harney
Recklessness means the conscious and deliberate taking of an unjustified risk. In New Zealand it involves proof that the consequence complained of could well happen, together with an intention to continue the course of conduct regardless of risk.
R v Piri
Recklessness in murder
Recognition of a real or substantial risk
Recklessness here involves a conscious, deliberate risk taking. The degree of risk of death foreseen by the accused under either s167(b) or (d) must be more than negligible or remote. The accused must recognise a “real or substantial risk” that death would be caused
R v Desmond
Killing in pursuit of an unlawful object, knowledge
R v Desmond
Not only must the object be unlawful, but also the accused must know that his act is likely to cause death. It must be shown that his knowledge accompanied the act causing death.
Punishment of Murder
(1) Every one who……
(1) Every one who commits murder is liable to imprisonment for life.
(2) Subsection (1) is subject to section 102 of the Sentencing Act 2002.
R v Murphy
R v Murphy
When proving an attempt to commit an offence it must be shown that the accused’s intention was to commit the substantive offence. For example, in a case of attempted murder it is necessary for the Crown to establish an actual intent to kill
Therefore, this requirement on the Crown means that attempted murder is one of the most difficult offences in the Crimes Act to prove beyond a reasonable doubt.
R v Harpur
R v Harpur
The Court may have regard to the conduct viewed cumulatively up to the point when the conduct in question stops … the defendant’s conduct [may] be considered in its entirety. Considering how much remains to be done … is always relevant, though not determinative.
Punishment of attempted murder
Every one who…..
Every one who attempts to commit murder is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years.
Counselling or attempting to procure murder
Everyone is liable…..
Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who incites, counsels, or attempts to procure any person to murder any other person in New Zealand, when that murder is not in fact committed.
Section 174 applies where murder is not in fact committed. If the person incited or counselled commits murder, the parties’ provisions of s 66(1)(d) will apply to the inciter or counsellor.
Where murder is attempted but not in fact committed, an inciter, counsellor or procurer will be liable as a party under s 66(1)(d) to an attempt to murder under s 173.
Conspiracy to murder
Everyone is liable……
(1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years who conspires or agrees with any person to murder any other person, whether the murder is to take place in New Zealand or elsewhere.
(2) For the purposes of this section, the expression To murder includes to cause the death of another person out of New Zealand in circumstances that would amount to murder if the act were committed in New Zealand.
Punishment for accessory after the fact to murder
Everyone is liable….
Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who is an accessory after the fact to murder.
R v Mane
Accessory after the fact to murder
R v Mane
For a person to be an accessory the offence must be complete at the time of the criminal involvement. One cannot be convicted of being an accessory after the fact of murder when the actus reus of the alleged criminal conduct was wholly completed before the offence of homicide was completed.
Punishment of manslaughter
Of note only
(1) Every one who commits manslaughter is liable to imprisonment for life.
However, the judge, taking all matters into consideration, may impose any penalty from a fine to life imprisonment, depending on the circumstances.
- Covers those types of unlawful killing in which the death is caused by an unlawful act or gross negligence.
- In such cases there has been no intention to kill or to cause grievous bodily harm.
Manslaughter, then, includes culpable homicide that:
• does not come within s167 or s168
• comes within ss167 and 168, but is reduced to manslaughter because the
killing was a part of a suicide pact as defined in s180(3) of the Crimes Act 1961.