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Growth plate (epiphyseal plate) location and structure

at the metaphysis between the shaft and head of long bones. Made of hyaluronic acid with embedded chondrocytes


growth plate function

allows growth of shaft of long bones, whilst leaving head for articulation


Structure of the growth plate (from head of bone to shaft/resting part to growing part)

Reserve zone -> Proliferative zone -> hypertrophic and maturational zone -> zone of provisional ossification/calcification -> zone of ossification within metaphysis


Structure of synovial joint

see diagram.
bone with articular cartilage at joint. Encased in synovial membrane forming synovial cavity with synovial fluid. Joint capsule encases everything and ligaments and tendons insert around it to bone via entheses. Bursa may surround joint, also filled with synovial fluid, lie outside joint capsule but surround joint


describe and explain stages of bone healing

haematoma and inflammation due to breaking of blood vessels in bone
soft callous = angiogenesis and chondracytes make collagen and proteoglycans
hard callous = chrondracytes ossify forming woven bone
bone remodelling and lamellar bone is formed


Types of cells in synovium and what they resemble

Type A = macrophages
Type B = synovial fibroblast


Role and prominent features of Type A synovial cells

Resemble macrophages
Phagocytosis and immune response (key in rheumatoid arthritis)
Mitochondria prominent


Role and prominent features of Type B synovial cells

Synovial fibroblasts
Secrete hyaluronic acid (non-sulphated GAG in synovial fluid)
Prominent ER


Wolff's law states that...

and results

Bones grow and remodel based on the forces applied to them (in healthy bone)

Compression -> decreased growth
Tension -> increased growth/extension of bone


Structure, location and components of articular cartilage

Can be named as ECM with embedded chondrocytes
Mostly made of proteoglycans = aggrecan and collagen = type II
Contains lots of water due to highly branched and highly negatively charged sulphated GAGs. (analogous to sponge)