Muscle Performance, Injuries, and Diseases Flashcards Preview

BIOL 223 > Muscle Performance, Injuries, and Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscle Performance, Injuries, and Diseases Deck (50):
1

Muscle performance is considered in terms of

Force and Endurance

2

Define force

Maximum amount of tension produced by a muscle or muscle group

3

Define endurance

Amount of time during which an individual can perform a particular activity

4

What factors determine the performance ability of a skeletal muscle?

Types of muscle fibers present
Physical conditioning or training

5

What are the three types of muscle fibers?

Slow, intermediate, fast

6

Describe slow fibers

Type 1 fibers
slow twitch
Oxidative (optimized for aerobic activity)

7

Describe intermediate fibers

Type 2-A fibers
fast twitch
oxidative

8

Describe fast fibers

Type 2-B fibers
Fast twitch
glycolytic fibers

9

What is the structure of slow fibers?

Dark
Half the diameter of fast fibers
Abundant mitochondria
Extensive blood supply
High concentration of myoglobin
Can contract for long periods of time

10

What is myoglobin?

Intracellular oxygen storage molecule

11

True or false slow fibers are fatigue-resistant

True

12

What is the structure of fast fibers

Light
Contain densely packed myofibrils
Large glycogen reserves
Few mitochondria
Produce rapid, powerful contractions of short duration
Fatigue rapidly

13

What is the structure of intermediate fibers?

Additional capillary supply
More mitochondria
Smaller in diameter
Not as dependent on anaerobic metabolism

14

White muscles are made up of mostly

fast fibers

15

Dark muscles are made up of mostly

slow fiber

16

Training or conditioning can change what

The percentage of fast fibers that have intermediate properties

17

Define hypertrophy

Increase in diameter of muscle

18

Define atrophy

Decrease in diameter of a muscle

19

Increased activity leads to

Synthesis of more actin and myosin myofilaments

20

Decreased activity leads to

loss of actin and myosin myofilaments

21

Muscle fiber A is twice the diameter of muscle fiber B. Muscle fiber A can produce greater tension than muscle fiber B because

A has more myosin to actin cross bridges forming during contraction

22

What is anaerobic endurance

Time period in which muscular contractions are sustained by glycolysis after depleting ATP/CP reserves

23

What is aerobic endurance?

Time period in which muscle can continue to contract while supported by mitochondrial activities after depleting ATP/CP reserves

24

How do you improve anaerobic endurance?

Frequent brief, intensive workouts
Increase muscle mass
Increase glycogen reserves
Increase ability to tolerate lactic acid buildup

25

How do you improve aerobic endurance?

Sustained low levels of activity
Increase blood supply to muscles
Improve cardiovascular activity

26

When you age

Decrease muscle size, length, and endurance
Skeletal muscle becomes less elastic

27

The disease called tetanus caused by the bacteria clostridium tetani

Causes loss of voluntary muscle control by the nervous system
Causes strong contractions in muscles

28

What are primary disorders?

Disorders resulting from problems with the muscular system itself

29

What are examples of primary disorders?

Muscle Trauma
Muscle infection
Inherited disorders
Tumors

30

What are secondary disorders?

Result of problems originating in other systems

31

What are examples of nervous system disorders?

Nervous system disorders
Nutritional/metabolic problems
Cardiovascular disorders

32

Define muscle spasm

Strong, sudden, unusually painful, unwanted contraction

33

Define muscle spasticity

excessive muscle tone

34

Define muscle flaccidity

very low muscle tone

35

Define muscle atrophy

deterioration or wasting due to disuse, immobility, or interference with normal motor neuron inneration

36

Define myositis

Muscle inflammation

37

Define strain

Tears in muscle tissue

38

Define sprain

Tears in ligament or tendon or joint capsule

39

Define paralysis

Loss of voluntary motor control

40

What type of paralysis is the blockage of release of ACh (botulism)?

Flaccid

41

What type of paralysis is the interference with binding of ACh to receptors?

Flaccid paralysis

42

What type of paralysis is the interference with ACh Esterase activity?

Spastic paralysis

43

What type of paralysis is the loss of motor neuron (polio)?

Flaccid Paralysis

44

What type of paralysis is the loss of motor neuron axon-peripheral nerve damage

Flaccid paralysis

45

What type of paralysis is the excessive stimulation of motor neurons (tetanus)?

Spastic paralysis

46

What are the types of inherited disorders?

Muscular dystrophies
Myotonic dystrophy

47

What is Duchenne's MD

X linked
More common in males
Problem on X chromosome
Early onset

48

What is Myotonic dystrophy

Chromosome 19 disorder
Late onset

49

What are examples of minor muscle trauma?

damage to myofibrils
Sarcolemma damage
From excessive activity

50

What are examples of major muscle trauma?

Laceration
Crushing
Deep bruise
Muscle tear