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Flashcards in Muscles 1 Deck (28):
1

Function of axial muscles in birds & mammals

Epaxial stabilize vertebral column
Hypaxials for protective body wall (esp. in lumbar region - no ribs), 3 layers hold in viscera & move trunk - all tetrapods
Hypaxials expand/compress ribcage for ventilation - all amniotes

2

Describe the appendicular muscles of anurans

(frogs, toads) large, for jumping

3

Function of muscles

Provide force for movement - skeletal or internal

4

Where does the muscle in the walls of blood vessels come from?

Either mesenchyme or splanchnic hypomere mesoderm

5

Function of hypobranchial muscles in jawed fish?

-open jaw
-move tongue
-expand buccal & branchial cavities

6

Which muscles does splanchnic hypomere mesoderm give rise to?

Cardiac
Smooth around some blood vessels & in digestive tract lining

7

From where do hypobranchial muscles arise?

anterior/ventral growth of somites

8

Describe the appendicular muscles of caecilians

None - 2° loss (use lateral undulation)

9

How are axial muscles divided?

Into myomeres along length of body
Epaxial above horizontal septum, hypaxial below

10

Function of branchiomeric muscles in tetrapods

open/close mouth
in middle ear
facial muscles
muscles for branchial arches III-VII reduced, in larynx/pharynx/pectoral girdle & forelimbs

11

Where does the smooth muscle around the digestive tract come from?

Some from splanchnic hypomere mesoderm, some (around visceral organs) from mesenchyme

12

Axial muscle function in tetrapods with sprawled limb posture

Provide force for lateral undulation (locomotion not taken over by limbs)

13

Which muscles does myotome epimere mesoderm (somites) give rise to?

Most skeletal muscle (axial & appendicular), hypobranchial (from anterioventral growth)

14

Describe the appendicular muscles of tetrapods, in general

more prominent than in fish & divided into several groups for complex motion; even helped by some axial (& branchial, in forelimbs) muscles

15

General function of branchiomeric muscles

Form muscular pharyngeal pump by attaching to splanchnocranium branchial arches

16

Function of branchiomeric muscles in chondrichthyes & osteichthyes

Pump water over gills & move jaws

17

Where are hypobranchial muscles found in tetrapods?

Larynx, tongue, throat, hyoid apparatus

18

Where does cardiac muscle come from?

splanchnic hypomere mesoderm

19

Describe the appendicular muscles of fish

Small, on top & bottom of fins connecting girdle to pterygiophores

20

Axial muscle function in amniotes

Hypaxials for protective body wall (esp. in lumbar region w/o ribs), in 3 layers to hold in viscera & move trunk - all tetrapods
Also expand/compress ribcage for ventilation

21

Describe the appendicular muscles of salamanders

Diversified (as in all tetrapods), but small because still primarily use lateral undulation for locomotion

22

List the 5 types of antagonistic muscle pairs

-Abduction/adduction
-Flexion/extension
-Protraction/retraction
-Levation/depression
-Constriction/dilation

23

Which types of muscles does mesenchyme give rise to?

Smooth in walls of some blood vessels & visceral organs

24

What gives rise to branchiomeric muscles & extrinsic eye muscles?

Somitomeres in head

25

Where does most skeletal muscle come from?

Myotome epimere mesoderm in somites

26

Describe the appendicular muscles of birds & cursorial tetrapods

Mass concentrated proximally to reduce distal mass and improve efficiency (also makes birds more stable in flight)
Connected to distal sites by tendons

27

Function of axial muscles in tetrapods

Hypaxials for protective body wall (esp. in lumbar region w/o ribs), in 3 layers to hold in viscera & move trunk

28

Function of branchiomeric muscles in agnathans

pump water over gills