Phylogeny Flashcards Preview

Biol204 > Phylogeny > Flashcards

Flashcards in Phylogeny Deck (75):
1

Location of endostyle

Ventral side of pharynx

2

Distinguishing features of parareptilia

-SHELL
-anapsid skull

3

Who are the sarcopterygiians?

Fleshy-finned fish (osteichthyes)

4

Describe adult form of urochordate

Sessile, filter feeder, has pharyngeal slits, endostyle, incurrent & excurrent siphons, atrium, digestive system

5

What does the muscular pharyngeal pump of vertebrates replace in urochordates and cephalochordates?

Cilia in pharynx

6

Synapomorphy of eureptilia

diapsid skull (2 pairs of temporal fenestrae)

7

How can amniotes be identified/differentiated?

By temporal fenestrae

8

What is eureptilia divided up into?

Lepidosauria, Archosauria

9

Evolutionary advantages of cranium

Protects brain & sensory organs, allowing the brain to grow bigger and better -> Allows more complex & maneuverable body

10

Distinguishing features of Monotremes

-Embryos develop in leathery-shelled eggs (vs. other mammals: live birth)
-Cloaca (shared opening for urinary, excretory, reproductive releases)

11

Describe pharyngeal slits

Slits in chamber posterior to mouth, present during at least some point of development of chordates (lost in most adult species, kept under gills in fish)

12

Polyphyletic group (def)

taxa not descended from an immediate common ancestor

13

Teleostei refers to...

A diverse subgroup of Actinopterygii

14

Describe anatomy of notochord

Cell core, fibrous sheath, ventral to hollow nerve cord

15

Function of endostyle

Produce mucus, process iodine (homologous to vertebrate thyroid - processes iodine, produces HORMONES)

16

Cyclostomes refers to...

Agnathans (cyclo-: round, -stomes: mouth -> round-mouthed)

17

What's special about Myxinoidean body fluids?

Isosmotic w/sea water (v. salty)

18

Phylogeny (def)

Evolutionary history of any group of organisms

19

Secondary loss (def)

Loss of a character shared with an ancestor

20

Pleisiomorphy (def)

Ancestral (inherited) character; relative to taxon under consideration

21

5 shared traits of chordates

1. dorsal hollow nerve cord
2. endostyle/thyroid
3. pharyngeal slits
4. postanal tail
5. notochord

22

Advantages of muscular pharyngeal pump over cilia

- higher volume flow rate -> eat more, grow bigger
- more damage-resistant
- move large particles against a force
- cilia lining the pharynx limits size

23

Synapomorphy (def)

Derived character shared by 2+ taxa; relative to taxa under consideration

24

Advantages of jaws & paired fins together

- Allow hunting/more food sources -> can increase metabolic rate & activity

25

Describe cranium as vertebrate synapomorphy: embryonic origin, function

from neural crest cells & mesenchyme; protects brain & sensory organs, provides structural support, needed for jaws in jawed species

26

Reason for motile urochordate larvae

Can disperse to find new living sites (not for finding food b/c don't really eat during the <1 day larval stage)

27

Traits of amphibia

-aquatic larvae metamorphose to (semi-)terrestrial adults
-thin, scaleless, mucus-covered skin for cutaneous respiration
-anamniotic eggs: must be kept moist or will dessicate

28

Synapomorphies of Aves

Feathers
Air sacs of respiratory system (incl. hollow bones)
Endothermy

29

Who are the actinopterygiians?

The ray-finned fish (osteichthyes)

30

Location of dorsal hollow nerve cord

Dorsal to digestive tract

31

Teleostomi refers to...

Osteichthyes & Tetrapoda

32

How do you determine if a character is a synapomorphy or arose from convergent evolution?

Examine intervening species, other members of the taxa

33

How do chondrichthyans maintain their buoyancy?

Oily liver (still slightly more dense than water, so sink to bottom or keep swimming w/heterocercal tail)

34

Who are the metatherians?

Marsupials

35

2 defining features of Agnathans

- no jaw (cyclostome)
- lack bone

36

Monophyletic group (def)

1 ancestor & ALL of its descendents

37

What is chondrichthyes divided up into?

Elasmobranchii (sharks, rays, skates)
Holocephali (ratfish)

38

Who are the monotremes?

Echidna, platypus

39

How do cephalochordates use the pharyngeal slits?

For filter feeding (food sticks on mucus (from endostyle) on pharyngeal bars, moved to digestive tract by cilia)

40

Typical function of post-anal tail

Locomotion (particularly by lateral undulation)

41

Which of the 5 main chordate characteristics are maintained by adult urochordates?

Endostyle, pharyngeal slits (others lost in drastic metamorphosis)

42

Advantages of paired pelvic & pectoral fins

Better stability & steering -> better maneuverability (-> can move up water column to new food sources)

43

Synapomorphies of vertebrates?

Vertebral column, cranium, muscular pharyngeal pump (also neural crest cells)

44

Synapomorphies of amniota

-Extra-embryonic membranes: amnion, chorion, allantois (& yolk sac)
-Epidermal scales

45

Defining features of Myxinoidea?

-NO vertebrae
-notochord (kept for lateral undulation)
-1 loop of vestibular apparatus

46

Synapomorphies of synapsida

-Endothermy
-Synapsid skull
-Hair
-Mammary glands
-3 middle ear bones & 1 lower jaw bone

47

Location of notochord

Dorsal to digestive tract, ventral to dorsal hollow nerve cord

48

Synapomorphy of teleostomi

Adjustable gas bladder (swim bladder for buoyancy or lungs for gas exchange)

49

What data is used to determine the relation of organisms?

Genetics
Shared (homologous) characters of living & fossil organisms

50

Distinguishing feature of actinopterygii

Ray-fins

51

Function of notochord

Provide longitudinal axis structural support, promote lateral undulation

52

What is Lepidosauria divided into?

Squamata, Sphenodonta

53

Advantage of extra-embryonic membranes in calcareous or leathery shell

Prevent dessication -> can lay eggs on land

54

3 synapomorphies of gnathostomes

1. bone
2. jaws
3. paired pelvic and pectoral fins w/ supportive bony/cartilaginous girdles, muscles

55

Most recent common ancestor (def)

Latest interbreeding population (NOT an individual)

56

Advantages of legs, as tetrapod synapomorphy

Good for bearing weight on land

57

Teleosti (def)

diverse subgroup of Actinopterygii

58

Describe vertebral column as vertebrate synapomorphy

Series of bones/cartilages that allow movement, define body axis, protect dorsal nerve cord

59

Embryonic origin of dorsal hollow nerve cord

Ectoderm (neural plate cells)

60

What is a synapomorphy of metatherians? Any other distinguishing characters?

Yolk sac placenta (made from yolk sac & chorion)
-------------------
Young born early in development, grow in marsupium (maternal abdominal pouch)

61

Typical form of post-anal tail

Posterior to anus; contains notochord and myomeres

62

Apomophy (def)

Derived character; relative to taxon under consideration

63

What is archosauria divided up into?

Aves, Crocodilia

64

Which of the 5 main chordate characteristics are retained in adult cephalochordates?

All (no major metamorphosis)

65

Embryonic origin of notochord, role in adult

Mesoderm; usually replaced during development (lesser role in adult)

66

Sarcopterygii synapomorphy (advantages?)

fleshy fins (better for stability in challenging environments, could be used to bear weight)

67

Clade (def)

1 ancestor & ALL of its descendents (monophyletic group)

68

What is synapsida divided up into?

Montrema, then Eutheria & Metatheria

69

How do urochordates use their pharyngeal slits?

For filter feeding (food sticks on mucus (from endostyle) on pharyngeal bars, moved to digestive tract by cilia)

70

Tetrapoda refers to...

Amniotes (Sauropsids & Synapsids) & Anamniotes (Amphibia)

71

Synapomorphy of tetrapods

Legs (chiridium: muscular appendages with well-defined joints and digits)

72

Paraphyletic group (def)

1 ancestor but NOT all of its descendants

73

Synapsida (def)

Mammals

74

Advantages of jaws

good for biting/eating wider variety of food, free pharyngeal bars for gas exchange

75

Synapomorphy of eutherians

Chorioallantoic placenta (chorion & allantois)