Musculoskeletal Disorders Flashcards Preview

Med Surge 3rd exam > Musculoskeletal Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Disorders Deck (134)
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1

Musculoskeletal system involve what parts of the body:

Bones, joints, cartilage, muscle, ligaments, tendons, fascia, bursa

2

What are the functions of bones

to provide: support, protection of internal organs, voluntary movement, blood cell production, mineral storage

3

What part of the musculoskeletal is where the end of two bones meet, is classified according to degree of movement, and is enclosed in a capsule of fibrous CT:

joints

4

What part of the musculoskeletal system is a rigid CT in synovial joints, supports soft tissue, provides surface for joint movement, lacks direct bld supply:

cartilage

5

What are the 3 types of cartilage:

hyaline (trachea, bronchi, articulaar surface of bones), elastic (ear, larynx), fibrous (vertebral disks, protective cushion between bones)

6

What are the types of muscles:

cardiac (heart), smooth (airways, gi tract, uterus), skeletal (moves and supports the skeleton

7

What part of the musculoskeletal system attaches bones to bones:

ligaments

8

What part of the musculoskeletal system attaches muscles to bone:

tendons

9

What part of the musculoskeletal system is composed of dense, fibrous CT, has poor bld supply, and connects bone to bone and muscle to bone:

ligaments and tendons

10

What part of the musculoskeletal system is more elastic then tendons, provides stability, and permits controlled movement at the joint:

ligaments

11

What part of the musculoskeletal system are layers of CT that can withstand limited stretching, encloses individual muscles, and provides strength to muscles:

Fascia

12

What part of the musculoskeletal system consist of small sac of CT lined w/synovial membrane/fluid, is located at bony prominences or joints to relieved pressure, and decreases friction between moving parts:

Bursae (if swollen, bursitis may result)

13

What are the gerontologic differences in bone:

Decrease in bone density

14

What are the gerontologic differences in joints:

Increased risk of cartilage erosion and loss of water from disks

15

What are the gerontologic differences in muscles:

Decreased in number and diameter, decreased ability to store and release glycogen, and loss of elasticity (in ligaments/cartilage)

16

What are the types of soft tissue injuries:

Sprains, strains, dislocations, and subluxations

17

What are the two most common types of musculoskeletal injuries associated w/abnormal stretching or twisting motions:

sprains and injuries

18

What musculoskeletal injury involves the ligamentous structures surrounding a joint resulting in partial or complete tearing of the fibers; caused by wrenching or twisting motions; found usually around the ankles or knee joints:

sprain

19

What musculoskeletal injury is caused by excessive pull or stretch (may include the tendons) to the lower back, calf, or hamstrings

strain

20

What are some clinical manifestations of strains and sprains:

pain, edema, decrease in function, contusion

21

How long does recovery take for strain and sprains:

3-6 wks, x-ray may need to be taken to r/o fx, surgical repair may be needed for a severe strain

22

What are the Tx of sprains and strains:

RICE, NSAIDs, heat after 24-48hrs

23

What is the emergency management of acute soft tissue injury:

Elevate, compression bandage unless dislocation is present, ice packs, immobilize in the postion, NSAIDs, tetanus/diphtheria prophylaxis if skin integrity is breached/open fx, abx prophylaxis for open fx, lrg tissue defects, or mangled extremity

24

Cryotherapy (cold) causes what effects when applied:

vasoconstriction and reduction in the transmission/perception of nerve pain impulses

25

Compression application causes what effect and how should it be wrapped:

Compression bandages how to limit swelling; compression bandages should be wrapped distally away from the midline of the body and progressing proximally to encourage fluid return (bandage is too tight if numbness is felt below the area of compression

26

How does heat application affect the injury:

Heat application should be applied after 24-48 hrs to reduce swelling and vasodilate

27

A complete displacement of a bone from a joint that's considered to be a orthopedic emergency is define as:

dislocation

28

Where do dislocations typically occur:

UE: thumb, elbow, shoulder; LE: hip, knee

29

A partial or incomplete displacement of the joint surface is define as:

subluxation (requires less healing time than a dislocation)

30

Patellar dislocations are more common in females. Why:

Females are more at risk to patellar dislocations bc quadricep muscles are not as strong