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Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Review Deck (51)
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What connects bone to bone?



What connects muscle to bone?



What is affected with a sprain?



What is affected with a strain?



What is the 3-4 rule?

3-4 tabs of ibuprofen, 3-4 times per day for 3-4 days

Ibuprofen - 400-800 mg TID-QID
naproxen 250-500 mg QD in divided doses


According to the WHO Bone Density Criteria, what score is diagnostic of osteoporosis?

T score 2.5 standard deviations from the mean for young adult white women)


According to the WHO Bone Density Criteria, what score is diagnostic of osteopenia?

T score -2.5 to 1.5 (1 to 2.5 SDs below the mean for young adult white women)


How do you best measure bone density?

A DEXA (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) scan. Also used to diagnose osteoporosis and guiding treatment decisions.


Where does the median nerve innervate?

To the palm and palmar surface of most of the middle finger, index finger, and thumb, and half of the fourth/ring finger digit. It innervates the thumb to flex, abduct, and opposition.


What are the two primary tests to evaluate for carpal tunnel and how are they performed?
What is the treatment?

-Tinel's sign and Phalen's sign.

-Treatment: a "cock up" splint to prevent dorsiflexion and


What is the McMurray test?
How do you perform it and what are positive findings?

-Tests for medial meniscal injury
-An audible/palpable click when the knee is raised slowly
with one foot externally rotated (knee is flexed and then
quickly straightened), NP's hand rests on the joint line


What is the Lachman's test?
How do you perform it and what are positive findings?

-Drawer test to assess for ACL/PCL tear
-Most sensitive and easy to perform test on a swollen,
painful knee
-+Anterior drawer suggests ACL tear
-+Posterior drawer suggests PCL tear


How are ankle sprains classified?

Stretched, partially torn, or completely torn ligaments

Grade 1 - mild, localized tenderness, with normal ROM
and no disability
Grade 2 - moderate to severe pain with weight bearing;
difficulty walking, swelling, ecchymosis; pain
immediately after injury
Grade 3 - impossible to ambulate; resists any motion of
feet; "egg-shaped" swelling within 2 hours of injury


What is bursitis?
How is it treated?

-Inflammation of the bursa
-Caused by trauma, sepsis/infection
-Most common locations:
-S/S - pain, swelling, tenderness, erythema
-Aspirate with C&S, WBD, plain x-rays
-Splinting, RICE, heat, aspirin or NSAIDs, steroids (max 3 per year)


What are some defining characteristics of Osteoarthritis?

-It is a degenerative joint disease with slow destruction of
the articular cartilage
-Gets worse throughout the day
-Mostly affects knees, hips, DIPs (Herbeden's nodes), and
PIPs (Bourchard's nodes), wrists
-Swelling and edema, NO REDNESS OR HEAT
-Better in the AM, worse as the day goes on
-X-Rays reveal joint space narrowing, osteophytes
-Aspirated synovial fluid is normal, yellow/clear


What are some defining characteristics of Rheumatoid Arthritis?

-Most common in younger females
-Autoimmune inflammation of connective tissue
-Worse in the morning, better throughout the day
-Mostly affects PIPs, MCPs/wrists
-Swelling and edema with redness and heat
-Elevated ESR, ANA+ in 1/5 patients
-Aspirated synovial fluid with inflammatory changes and
-X-ray reveals progressive cortical thinning, osteopenia,
joint space narrowing, joint swelling
-DMARDS - Must check LFTs


What is the straight leg raisetest?
How do you perform it and what are positive findings?

-have patient lay supine and raise leg off table.
-Radiating or sciatic pain reproduced is a positive finding.


What is the pelvic rock test?
How do you perform it and what are positive findings?

Screens for sacroiliac joint dysfunction.
-with patient laying supine, place hands on each of the
anterior superior iliac spines and attempt to "open and
close" the pelvis.
-The test is positive if the patient feels pain in either or
both sacroiliac joints.


Your patient comes in complaining of lower back pain that radiates to the medial maleolus and he also reports numbness behind his knee. On exam you find diminished patellar reflexes. What is the next test you perform and why?

-You have the patient squat and rise to assess quadriceps muscle strength.
-You are confirming L3-L4 disk pathology.


Your patient comes to see you for pain that radiates to lateral calf and causes numbness on the bottom of her foot. What test do you do in your exam room and why?

-You have the patient walk on her heels to assess her ability to dorsiflex her foot and great toe. This should also elicit pain in her calf.
-You suspect L4-L5 disk pathology.


What do you expect to find with L5-S1 disk pathology?
(85% of herniated disks)

-Pain along buttocks, lateral leg and lateral malleolus.
-Numbness to lateral aspect of foot and in posterior calf
-Diminished achilles reflex
-Inability to walk on toes (this will elicit pain to calf and butt)


In addition to bracing, rest, PT, heat/ice, NSAIDs, and education on proper body mechanics, what else should the NP assess for in someone with lower back pain?

-Psychosocial assessment of stress management strategies
-Refer if not better in 3 days


A patient comes in complaining of pain from heel to toes and is worse when he first wakes up and takes a few steps. What do you advise?

-You tell him he most likely has plantar fasciitis, which is inflammation of the plantar fascia/the bottom of his foot probably from overuse.
-You tell him to take NSAIDs and he may possibly need steroid injections if not better with NSAIDs
-He needs to rest and use orthotics and wear a night splint


Your patient comes to saying she thinks she might have a rock stuck in her foot. She reports some numbness and tingling in her toes. What do you advise?

-You tell her she most likely does not have a rock in her foot but a condition called Morton's Neuroma which means she has a benign mass between her 3rd and 4th intermetatarsal spaces that causing a compression neuropathy.
-You can do a US to confirm
-You encourage her to ear orthotics and she can try corticosteroid injections if she wants
-She may need surgery


What is polymyalgia rheumatica and how do you treat it?

It is an inflammatory disorder involving pain and stiffness of neck, shoulders and hip.
-It may be associated with temporal arteritis.
-Treatment is with corticosteroids and symptom management


You suspect your patient has Osgood-Schlatter Disease, what do you expect to find?

-An adolescent male who is going through his growth spurt
-Pain with high impact sports
-Enlarged tibial tuberosity on affected side
-You tell him to scale back on the sports and wear a neoprene sleeve for comfort. His pain will go away at the end of his growth spurt.


What do you expect to find with toxic synovitis?

-insidious onset of hip pain, elicited by internal rotation of hip
-recent viral illness, maybe a low grade temp
-treat with analgesics as it is usually benign and self-limiting
-osteomyelitis or septic arthritis are on your differential


What differentiates Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis from Legg-Calves-Perthes Disease?

-In SCFE, the femoral head become dislocated spontaneously; acute onset
-Often one leg is shorter than the other as a result of displacement
-Requires immediate referral to the orthopedist and the patient cannot ambulate
-more common in males and AA; incidence greater among obese males with sedentary lifestyles and seems to occur during growth spurt or prior to menarche for females


For what condition do you perform the Adam's Forward Bend Test?

Scoliosis. You ask the patient to bend forward to touch their toes and you assess for assymmetry of the shoulders, ribs, hips, and waistline.
-If you find more than 25 degrees curvature, refer to orthopedics


What are the three classifications of an ankle sprain?

Grade I: Stretching but no tearing of the ligament. Local
tenderness but only minimal swelling and usually no
ecchymosis. Maintains full range of motion and is able
to bear weight.
Grade II: Partial tear of ligament. Pain immediately upon
injury. Significant pain with weight bearing and limited
ROM. Localized edema and ecchymosis.
Grade III: Complete ligamentous tearing. Unable to bear
weight. Severe pain immediately upon injury with
profound ecchymoses and edema. Unable to bear