Musculoskeletal System Flashcards Preview

Principles Anatomy > Musculoskeletal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal System Deck (21)
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1
Q

What are the bones of the axial skeleton?

A

skull bones
neck bones
bones of the trunk - chest abdomen and back

2
Q

What are the bones of the appendicular skeleton?

A

pectoral girdle bones
upper limbs bones
pelvic girdle bones
lower limb bones

3
Q

What causes bony features?

A

They develop during bone growth to be the best shape for the job
either because
an adjacent structure such as a blood vessel, tendon or nerve applies force to the developing bone
or
adjacent structure developing simultaneously causing the bone to grow around it - a formen (hole develops)

4
Q

What is a tuberosity?

A

A roughened area (bump) on the bone where muscles normally attach

5
Q

What are the 2 tissues which make up the skeleton?

A

cartilage and bone

6
Q

What are the functions of bone?

A
hard connective tissue 
support & protection of the body organs 
calcium metabolism
red blood cell formation
attachment for skeletal muscles
7
Q

What are the properties of cartilage?

A

it is less rigid than bone and is located where mobility is required such as at articulations (joints)

8
Q

What are the 3 different types of joint?

A

Synovial (most movable)
Cartilaginous
Fibrous (least movable most stable)

9
Q

What is the arterial supply to the joints?

A

the arteries supplying joints arise from large named arteries located near the joint - ‘articular branches’
periarticular (meaning “around the joint”) arterial anastomoses are common
the arteries supplying joints can be damaged by dislocations, dangerously compromising the blood flow distal to the joint

10
Q

What are the sensations detected by the excellent sensory nerve supply to the joints?

A

pain
touch
temperature
proprioception (joint position sense)

11
Q

What covers the skeletal muscle normally?

A

normally deep to the fascia

tough fibrous connective tissue covering for the muscles

12
Q

What are the different types of muscles?

A
circular 
pennate
fusiform 
quadrate 
flat with aponeurosis
13
Q

How are skeletal muscles normally attached?

A

2 points of attachment to bone
- origins on 1 side of a joint and insertions on the other side
tendons (non-contractile) attach the muscle to bone

14
Q

What happens during muscle contraction (gross anatomically)?

A

muscle shortens

15
Q

What is an aponeurosis?

A

a flattened tendon - associated with flat muscles which attach the muscle to soft tissue

16
Q

What is the main reflex which involves skeletal muscle?

A
  • when you touch something potentially damaging the sudden flexion and withdrawal from the danger
17
Q

What is a stretch reflex?

A

a jerk response

sudden stretch of the muscle’s tendon causing a contraction of the muscle to protect against over stretching

18
Q

What is muscle paralysis?

A

a muscle without a functioning motor nerve supply is “paralysed”
a paralysed muscle cannot contract
on examination the muscle would have reduced tone

19
Q

What is muscle spasticity?

A

the muscle has an intact and functioning motor nerve
the descending controls from the brain are not working
on examination the muscle would have increased tone

20
Q

What is muscle atrophy?

A

muscle wasting the monocytes are becoming smaller reducing the muscles bulk

21
Q

What is muscle hypertrophy?

A

opposite to atrophy

skeletal muscles enlarge the individua monocytes enlarge