What are the bones of the axial skeleton?
bones of the trunk - chest abdomen and back
What are the bones of the appendicular skeleton?
pectoral girdle bones
upper limbs bones
pelvic girdle bones
lower limb bones
What causes bony features?
They develop during bone growth to be the best shape for the job
an adjacent structure such as a blood vessel, tendon or nerve applies force to the developing bone
adjacent structure developing simultaneously causing the bone to grow around it - a formen (hole develops)
What is a tuberosity?
A roughened area (bump) on the bone where muscles normally attach
What are the 2 tissues which make up the skeleton?
cartilage and bone
What are the functions of bone?
hard connective tissue support & protection of the body organs calcium metabolism red blood cell formation attachment for skeletal muscles
What are the properties of cartilage?
it is less rigid than bone and is located where mobility is required such as at articulations (joints)
What are the 3 different types of joint?
Synovial (most movable)
Fibrous (least movable most stable)
What is the arterial supply to the joints?
the arteries supplying joints arise from large named arteries located near the joint - ‘articular branches’
periarticular (meaning “around the joint”) arterial anastomoses are common
the arteries supplying joints can be damaged by dislocations, dangerously compromising the blood flow distal to the joint
What are the sensations detected by the excellent sensory nerve supply to the joints?
proprioception (joint position sense)
What covers the skeletal muscle normally?
normally deep to the fascia
tough fibrous connective tissue covering for the muscles
What are the different types of muscles?
circular pennate fusiform quadrate flat with aponeurosis
How are skeletal muscles normally attached?
2 points of attachment to bone
- origins on 1 side of a joint and insertions on the other side
tendons (non-contractile) attach the muscle to bone
What happens during muscle contraction (gross anatomically)?
What is an aponeurosis?
a flattened tendon - associated with flat muscles which attach the muscle to soft tissue
What is the main reflex which involves skeletal muscle?
- when you touch something potentially damaging the sudden flexion and withdrawal from the danger
What is a stretch reflex?
a jerk response
sudden stretch of the muscle’s tendon causing a contraction of the muscle to protect against over stretching
What is muscle paralysis?
a muscle without a functioning motor nerve supply is “paralysed”
a paralysed muscle cannot contract
on examination the muscle would have reduced tone
What is muscle spasticity?
the muscle has an intact and functioning motor nerve
the descending controls from the brain are not working
on examination the muscle would have increased tone
What is muscle atrophy?
muscle wasting the monocytes are becoming smaller reducing the muscles bulk
What is muscle hypertrophy?
opposite to atrophy
skeletal muscles enlarge the individua monocytes enlarge