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Flashcards in Must know for test 2 Deck (74):
1

in the equation for KE which has more of an influance on KE

mass or velocity?

Velocity

2

what is the basic unit of energy?

Joule

3

what is a joule?

the force of one newton that moves it's point of application

1 meter in the direction of that force!!

4

Joule is a term of what? energy work or power?

energy

5

how much work is done pushing on a 100 kg pt on a 75kg operating table and you can't get teh damn thing to move?

0

no movemnet no work

6

What does LASER stand for

Light
Amplification
by
Stimulated
Emission
of
Radiation

7

Carbon dioxide laser properties (2)

invisible
marked with a helium-neon aiming beam

8

what is the Carbon dioxide laser used for

upper airway sx

9

Nd-YAG laser properties (1)

short wave length allows transmission by fiberoptics

10

Nd-YAG laser is used for what sx's

distal tracheobronchial tree and retina sx

11

KTP laser can be transmited by what?

fiberoptics

12

KTP laser is used in what sx's

neurosurgical and
otolarygeal

13

Argon Laser can be transmitted by what

fiberoptics

14

Argon laser is used in what sx's

neurological, retinal, and otolaryngological

15

with laser wavelengths longer wavelengths= what?

lower freq and lower energy
(all start with L)

16

with laser wavelengths shorter wavelengths= what?

higher freq and higher energy
(for jake sHorter= Higher and Higher) : )

17

frequancy is inversly proprtional to what??

wavelength
the higher the frequency the smaller the wavelength

18

what has a higher freguency?
KTP Wave length is 532
or
Nd:YAG wave length 1064

KTP
remember
freq is inversly proportional to wave length
the longer the wavelength the lower freq

19

which laser is for deep tissue? and why?

Nd-YAG
b/c of near infrared I guess????

20

what is the only laser that wet tissue can protect pt (like a wet towel)

CO2 laser

21

which laser is more readily absorbed by dark tissue?
transmitted through clear fluids
tissue penetration 2-6 mm

Nd-YAG

22

which laser is strongly absorbed by water, and thus by all tissue, pigmented or not. tissue penetration <0.5mm

CO2

23

which has a higher freq
argon WL=488-515
or
CO2 WL 10,600

argon
b/c freq is inversly proportional to WL, thus the longer the WL the lower (slower the freq), and also the shorter the WL the higher (faster) the freq.

24

which has a higher freq
KTP WL 532
or
Argon WL 488-515

argon
longer WL= lower freq
shorter WL= higher the freq

25

the greater the wavelength = the _______ absorption by water

greater
CO2 greatest WL 10,600

26

CO2 laser properties?
WL 10,600

Longer WL= Low freq= Low energy

27

Nd-YAG laser properties
WL 2064

sHorter WL= Higher freq= Higher energy

28

when doing airway sx with a laser what do you want to do with FiO2?

40% or less (preferable 21%)

29

When doing airway sx with a laser what VAA do you want to avoid? and why?

N2O
supports combustion

30

when doing airway sx with a laser what must you always have immediately available?

bottle of saline or water

31

when doing airway sx with a laser what 2 things are important about the OETT tube

use a laser or protected ETT
fill endotracheal cuff with saline or dye
use smallest allowable tube for surgical exposure and ventialation
usually 5.5-6.5

32

what 3 things are needed for a fire

oxidizer (N2O or O2)
fuel (drapes or ETT)
Ignition source (laser or Bovie)

33

Treatment of laryngospasms

-jaw thrust (at angle of Ramus-accupressure point)
-Succinylcholine if needed

34

whats the quanity and unit
m

length
meter

35

whats the quanity and unit
kg

mass
kilogram

36

whats the quanity and unit
s

time
second

37

whats the quanity and unit
A

electric current
ampere

38

whats the quanity and unit
K

temp
kelvin

39

whats the quanity and unit
mol

quanity of a substance
mole

40

whats the quanity and unit
cd

luminosity
candle

41

what deals with magnitude and direction

vector

42

what are the characteristics of a vector

displacement
velocity
acceleration
force

43

what is a sum of all vectors on a given object

fore (net force)

44

what law and who made it?
an object will remain at rest or in motion indefinitely unless a net force act upon it? (inertia)

Newton's
law of motion #1

45

what law and who made it?
force is proportional to a specific mass and an acceleration in a specific direction

Newtons
law of motion #2
(force)

46

what law and who made it?
for each force exerted on one body, there is an equal, but oppositely directed force on some other body interacting with it

Newtons law
Law of motion #3

47

what is the standard unit of measurement of force

newton

48

equation for force?

force= mass x acceleration

49

Equaion for newton

newton = kg x m / s^2

50

what is a newton in layman's terms

the amount of force required to move one kg of an object one meter per second squared

51

what does little g mean

gravitational constant for earth

52

what does g=

9.81 ms^2 (m/s/s)
or
32 ft s^2 (ft/s/s)

53

how do you calculate gravitational force (fw)

fw = g x m
= 9.81 ms^2 (m/s/s) or 32 ft s^2 (ft/s/s) x m

54

what is the free fall vacume? what are its properties

-weight is the only force acting on the object
-mass of the object does not effect the motion
-shape of the object does not effect the motion
-----All objects fall at the same rate in a vacuum (galileo)

55

what is free fall in the atmosphere? what are the properties?

weight is the only force acting on the object
- comparing 2 objects, the higher velocity occurs for hreater weight, lower drag coeff (more streamlined), lower gas density (higher altitude), or smaller area
---- objects do not fall at the same rate through the atmosphere----
velocity
gas density
frontal area
drag coeff

56

dynes are measured as (what is there equation)

dynes= gm x cm / s^2

57

what is magnitude only?

scalar

58

what is magnitude and direction

vector

59

force and vector is measured in what?

newtons

60

gravitational force allows for what?

weight measurements

61

What is a measure of a given force dispersed over a specific area

pressure

62

pressure is measured in what

pascals

63

pressure is inversly proportional to what?

area

64

pressure is directly proportional to what

force

65

when pascals is discussed with pressure
1 N/m^2 will equal what

102 gms/m^2

66

102 gms per square meter (gms/m^2) is a fairly small value so often times kilopascalse are used in the place of pascals!! so
1 N/m^2= 1 pascals so _______ N/m^2 = 1 kilopascal

1000 N/m^2

67

100 KPa (kilopascals) equals?
Atm
BAR
mmHg
Torr
cmH2O
lb/in^2

Atm- 1
BAR- 1
mmHg- 760
Torr- 760
cmH2O-1020
lb/in^2- 14.7
(just remember 1 atm= 760mmHg= 760 torr= 14.7 lbs/in^2)
then memorize the other 2

68

what is gauge pressure??

the pressure reading of a container of some kind, above and beyond atm pressure

69

what is absolute pressure?

the combination of atm pressure an dany pressure above atm pressure

70

equation for pressure?

pressure= force / area

71

when force is constant and area increases what happens to pressure?

decreases

72

KE=

1/2 x M x V^2

73

PE=

M x g x h

74

weight =

M x g