in the equation for KE which has more of an influance on KE

mass or velocity?

Velocity

what is the basic unit of energy?

Joule

what is a joule?

the force of one newton that moves it’s point of application

1 meter in the direction of that force!!

Joule is a term of what? energy work or power?

energy

how much work is done pushing on a 100 kg pt on a 75kg operating table and you can’t get teh damn thing to move?

0

no movemnet no work

What does LASER stand for

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

Carbon dioxide laser properties (2)

invisible

marked with a helium-neon aiming beam

what is the Carbon dioxide laser used for

upper airway sx

Nd-YAG laser properties (1)

short wave length allows transmission by fiberoptics

Nd-YAG laser is used for what sx’s

distal tracheobronchial tree and retina sx

KTP laser can be transmited by what?

fiberoptics

KTP laser is used in what sx’s

neurosurgical and

otolarygeal

Argon Laser can be transmitted by what

fiberoptics

Argon laser is used in what sx’s

neurological, retinal, and otolaryngological

with laser wavelengths longer wavelengths= what?

lower freq and lower energy

all start with L

with laser wavelengths shorter wavelengths= what?

higher freq and higher energy

for jake sHorter= Higher and Higher) :

frequancy is inversly proprtional to what??

wavelength

the higher the frequency the smaller the wavelength

what has a higher freguency?

KTP Wave length is 532

or

Nd:YAG wave length 1064

KTP

remember

freq is inversly proportional to wave length

the longer the wavelength the lower freq

which laser is for deep tissue? and why?

Nd-YAG

b/c of near infrared I guess????

what is the only laser that wet tissue can protect pt (like a wet towel)

CO2 laser

which laser is more readily absorbed by dark tissue?

transmitted through clear fluids

tissue penetration 2-6 mm

Nd-YAG

which laser is strongly absorbed by water, and thus by all tissue, pigmented or not. tissue penetration <0.5mm

CO2

which has a higher freq

argon WL=488-515

or

CO2 WL 10,600

argon

b/c freq is inversly proportional to WL, thus the longer the WL the lower (slower the freq), and also the shorter the WL the higher (faster) the freq.

which has a higher freq

KTP WL 532

or

Argon WL 488-515

argon

longer WL= lower freq

shorter WL= higher the freq

the greater the wavelength = the _______ absorption by water

greater

CO2 greatest WL 10,600

CO2 laser properties?

WL 10,600

Longer WL= Low freq= Low energy

Nd-YAG laser properties

WL 2064

sHorter WL= Higher freq= Higher energy

when doing airway sx with a laser what do you want to do with FiO2?

40% or less (preferable 21%)

When doing airway sx with a laser what VAA do you want to avoid? and why?

N2O

supports combustion

when doing airway sx with a laser what must you always have immediately available?

bottle of saline or water

when doing airway sx with a laser what 2 things are important about the OETT tube

use a laser or protected ETT

fill endotracheal cuff with saline or dye

use smallest allowable tube for surgical exposure and ventialation

usually 5.5-6.5

what 3 things are needed for a fire

oxidizer (N2O or O2)

fuel (drapes or ETT)

Ignition source (laser or Bovie)

Treatment of laryngospasms

- jaw thrust (at angle of Ramus-accupressure point)

- Succinylcholine if needed

whats the quanity and unit

m

length

meter

whats the quanity and unit

kg

mass

kilogram

whats the quanity and unit

s

time

second

whats the quanity and unit

A

electric current

ampere

whats the quanity and unit

K

temp

kelvin

whats the quanity and unit

mol

quanity of a substance

mole

whats the quanity and unit

cd

luminosity

candle

what deals with magnitude and direction

vector

what are the characteristics of a vector

displacement

velocity

acceleration

force

what is a sum of all vectors on a given object

fore (net force)

what law and who made it?

an object will remain at rest or in motion indefinitely unless a net force act upon it? (inertia)

Newton’s

law of motion #1

what law and who made it?

force is proportional to a specific mass and an acceleration in a specific direction

Newtons

law of motion #2

(force)

what law and who made it?

for each force exerted on one body, there is an equal, but oppositely directed force on some other body interacting with it

Newtons law

Law of motion #3

what is the standard unit of measurement of force

newton

equation for force?

force= mass x acceleration

Equaion for newton

newton = kg x m / s^2

what is a newton in layman’s terms

the amount of force required to move one kg of an object one meter per second squared

what does little g mean

gravitational constant for earth

what does g=

9.81 ms^2 (m/s/s)

or

32 ft s^2 (ft/s/s)

how do you calculate gravitational force (fw)

fw = g x m

= 9.81 ms^2 (m/s/s) or 32 ft s^2 (ft/s/s) x m

what is the free fall vacume? what are its properties

- weight is the only force acting on the object
- mass of the object does not effect the motion
- shape of the object does not effect the motion
- —-All objects fall at the same rate in a vacuum (galileo)

what is free fall in the atmosphere? what are the properties?

weight is the only force acting on the object

- comparing 2 objects, the higher velocity occurs for hreater weight, lower drag coeff (more streamlined), lower gas density (higher altitude), or smaller area

—- objects do not fall at the same rate through the atmosphere—-

velocity

gas density

frontal area

drag coeff

dynes are measured as (what is there equation)

dynes= gm x cm / s^2

what is magnitude only?

scalar

what is magnitude and direction

vector

force and vector is measured in what?

newtons

gravitational force allows for what?

weight measurements

What is a measure of a given force dispersed over a specific area

pressure

pressure is measured in what

pascals

pressure is inversly proportional to what?

area

pressure is directly proportional to what

force

when pascals is discussed with pressure

1 N/m^2 will equal what

102 gms/m^2

102 gms per square meter (gms/m^2) is a fairly small value so often times kilopascalse are used in the place of pascals!! so

1 N/m^2= 1 pascals so _______ N/m^2 = 1 kilopascal

1000 N/m^2

100 KPa (kilopascals) equals? Atm BAR mmHg Torr cmH2O lb/in^2

Atm- 1 BAR- 1 mmHg- 760 Torr- 760 cmH2O-1020 lb/in^2- 14.7 (just remember 1 atm= 760mmHg= 760 torr= 14.7 lbs/in^2) then memorize the other 2

what is gauge pressure??

the pressure reading of a container of some kind, above and beyond atm pressure

what is absolute pressure?

the combination of atm pressure an dany pressure above atm pressure

equation for pressure?

pressure= force / area

when force is constant and area increases what happens to pressure?

decreases

KE=

1/2 x M x V^2

PE=

M x g x h

weight =

M x g