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Flashcards in Must know for test 2 Deck (74)
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1
Q

in the equation for KE which has more of an influance on KE

mass or velocity?

A

Velocity

2
Q

what is the basic unit of energy?

A

Joule

3
Q

what is a joule?

A

the force of one newton that moves it’s point of application

1 meter in the direction of that force!!

4
Q

Joule is a term of what? energy work or power?

A

energy

5
Q

how much work is done pushing on a 100 kg pt on a 75kg operating table and you can’t get teh damn thing to move?

A

0

no movemnet no work

6
Q

What does LASER stand for

A
Light 
Amplification
by
Stimulated
Emission 
of
Radiation
7
Q

Carbon dioxide laser properties (2)

A

invisible

marked with a helium-neon aiming beam

8
Q

what is the Carbon dioxide laser used for

A

upper airway sx

9
Q

Nd-YAG laser properties (1)

A

short wave length allows transmission by fiberoptics

10
Q

Nd-YAG laser is used for what sx’s

A

distal tracheobronchial tree and retina sx

11
Q

KTP laser can be transmited by what?

A

fiberoptics

12
Q

KTP laser is used in what sx’s

A

neurosurgical and

otolarygeal

13
Q

Argon Laser can be transmitted by what

A

fiberoptics

14
Q

Argon laser is used in what sx’s

A

neurological, retinal, and otolaryngological

15
Q

with laser wavelengths longer wavelengths= what?

A

lower freq and lower energy

all start with L

16
Q

with laser wavelengths shorter wavelengths= what?

A

higher freq and higher energy

for jake sHorter= Higher and Higher) :

17
Q

frequancy is inversly proprtional to what??

A

wavelength

the higher the frequency the smaller the wavelength

18
Q

what has a higher freguency?
KTP Wave length is 532
or
Nd:YAG wave length 1064

A

KTP
remember
freq is inversly proportional to wave length
the longer the wavelength the lower freq

19
Q

which laser is for deep tissue? and why?

A

Nd-YAG

b/c of near infrared I guess????

20
Q

what is the only laser that wet tissue can protect pt (like a wet towel)

A

CO2 laser

21
Q

which laser is more readily absorbed by dark tissue?
transmitted through clear fluids
tissue penetration 2-6 mm

A

Nd-YAG

22
Q

which laser is strongly absorbed by water, and thus by all tissue, pigmented or not. tissue penetration <0.5mm

A

CO2

23
Q

which has a higher freq
argon WL=488-515
or
CO2 WL 10,600

A

argon
b/c freq is inversly proportional to WL, thus the longer the WL the lower (slower the freq), and also the shorter the WL the higher (faster) the freq.

24
Q

which has a higher freq
KTP WL 532
or
Argon WL 488-515

A

argon
longer WL= lower freq
shorter WL= higher the freq

25
Q

the greater the wavelength = the _______ absorption by water

A

greater

CO2 greatest WL 10,600

26
Q

CO2 laser properties?

WL 10,600

A

Longer WL= Low freq= Low energy

27
Q

Nd-YAG laser properties

WL 2064

A

sHorter WL= Higher freq= Higher energy

28
Q

when doing airway sx with a laser what do you want to do with FiO2?

A

40% or less (preferable 21%)

29
Q

When doing airway sx with a laser what VAA do you want to avoid? and why?

A

N2O

supports combustion

30
Q

when doing airway sx with a laser what must you always have immediately available?

A

bottle of saline or water

31
Q

when doing airway sx with a laser what 2 things are important about the OETT tube

A

use a laser or protected ETT
fill endotracheal cuff with saline or dye
use smallest allowable tube for surgical exposure and ventialation
usually 5.5-6.5

32
Q

what 3 things are needed for a fire

A

oxidizer (N2O or O2)
fuel (drapes or ETT)
Ignition source (laser or Bovie)

33
Q

Treatment of laryngospasms

A
  • jaw thrust (at angle of Ramus-accupressure point)

- Succinylcholine if needed

34
Q

whats the quanity and unit

m

A

length

meter

35
Q

whats the quanity and unit

kg

A

mass

kilogram

36
Q

whats the quanity and unit

s

A

time

second

37
Q

whats the quanity and unit

A

A

electric current

ampere

38
Q

whats the quanity and unit

K

A

temp

kelvin

39
Q

whats the quanity and unit

mol

A

quanity of a substance

mole

40
Q

whats the quanity and unit

cd

A

luminosity

candle

41
Q

what deals with magnitude and direction

A

vector

42
Q

what are the characteristics of a vector

A

displacement
velocity
acceleration
force

43
Q

what is a sum of all vectors on a given object

A

fore (net force)

44
Q

what law and who made it?

an object will remain at rest or in motion indefinitely unless a net force act upon it? (inertia)

A

Newton’s

law of motion #1

45
Q

what law and who made it?

force is proportional to a specific mass and an acceleration in a specific direction

A

Newtons
law of motion #2
(force)

46
Q

what law and who made it?
for each force exerted on one body, there is an equal, but oppositely directed force on some other body interacting with it

A

Newtons law

Law of motion #3

47
Q

what is the standard unit of measurement of force

A

newton

48
Q

equation for force?

A

force= mass x acceleration

49
Q

Equaion for newton

A

newton = kg x m / s^2

50
Q

what is a newton in layman’s terms

A

the amount of force required to move one kg of an object one meter per second squared

51
Q

what does little g mean

A

gravitational constant for earth

52
Q

what does g=

A

9.81 ms^2 (m/s/s)
or
32 ft s^2 (ft/s/s)

53
Q

how do you calculate gravitational force (fw)

A

fw = g x m

= 9.81 ms^2 (m/s/s) or 32 ft s^2 (ft/s/s) x m

54
Q

what is the free fall vacume? what are its properties

A
  • weight is the only force acting on the object
  • mass of the object does not effect the motion
  • shape of the object does not effect the motion
  • —-All objects fall at the same rate in a vacuum (galileo)
55
Q

what is free fall in the atmosphere? what are the properties?

A

weight is the only force acting on the object
- comparing 2 objects, the higher velocity occurs for hreater weight, lower drag coeff (more streamlined), lower gas density (higher altitude), or smaller area
—- objects do not fall at the same rate through the atmosphere—-
velocity
gas density
frontal area
drag coeff

56
Q

dynes are measured as (what is there equation)

A

dynes= gm x cm / s^2

57
Q

what is magnitude only?

A

scalar

58
Q

what is magnitude and direction

A

vector

59
Q

force and vector is measured in what?

A

newtons

60
Q

gravitational force allows for what?

A

weight measurements

61
Q

What is a measure of a given force dispersed over a specific area

A

pressure

62
Q

pressure is measured in what

A

pascals

63
Q

pressure is inversly proportional to what?

A

area

64
Q

pressure is directly proportional to what

A

force

65
Q

when pascals is discussed with pressure

1 N/m^2 will equal what

A

102 gms/m^2

66
Q

102 gms per square meter (gms/m^2) is a fairly small value so often times kilopascalse are used in the place of pascals!! so
1 N/m^2= 1 pascals so _______ N/m^2 = 1 kilopascal

A

1000 N/m^2

67
Q
100 KPa (kilopascals) equals?
Atm
BAR
mmHg
Torr
cmH2O
lb/in^2
A
Atm- 1
BAR- 1
mmHg- 760
Torr- 760
cmH2O-1020
lb/in^2- 14.7
(just remember 1 atm= 760mmHg= 760 torr= 14.7 lbs/in^2)
then memorize the other 2
68
Q

what is gauge pressure??

A

the pressure reading of a container of some kind, above and beyond atm pressure

69
Q

what is absolute pressure?

A

the combination of atm pressure an dany pressure above atm pressure

70
Q

equation for pressure?

A

pressure= force / area

71
Q

when force is constant and area increases what happens to pressure?

A

decreases

72
Q

KE=

A

1/2 x M x V^2

73
Q

PE=

A

M x g x h

74
Q

weight =

A

M x g