Mycology Flashcards Preview

Infectious Agents II > Mycology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mycology Deck (86):
1

Macroconidia or microconidia: Blastmycoses?

microconidia

2

Macro or microconidia: Histoplasmosis?

microconidia

3

Macro or microoconidia: Dermatophytes?

both

4

What is the infectivity of dimorphic fungi?

microconidia produced by mycelial form in the soil

5

What are the 5 primary forms of blasto?

1. pulmonary
2. ocular
3. skin lesions
4. bone
5. genitourinary

6

What is the best way to make a definitive diagnosis of any fungal disease?

demonstration of the organism

7

Which fungal agents make a capsule?

Cryptococcus neoformans

8

Location and host for Cryptococcus neoformans:

GI tract; birds

9

Location and host for intestinal aspergillosis?

intestine; calves, foals, cats

10

Location of histplasmosis?

Has a GI form

11

Location and host for Pythium?

GI; horses and dogs

12

Is Histoplasmosis in birds or bats?

NO. In soil with their feces

13

IS Cryptococcus in birds or bats?

In birds (GI tract)

14

What does Histoplasmosis look microscopically?

has hyaline septate hyphae, microconidia, and larger diagnostically characteristic tuberculated macroconidia

15

They are the smallest yeast cells of the major fungal diseases and are the only ones that grow exclusively intracellularly.

Histoplasmosis

16

Very common here. Mississippi and Ohio river basins and central Atlantic states. Common in Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi. Not worldwide.

Blastomycosis

17

Worldwide. Major endemic area of US is Eastern US, North-eastern US, MS river valley basin, and Great Lakes.

Histoplasmosis

18

Limited to the SW US:

Coccidioidomycosis

19

Worldwide, but most common in tropics.

Sporotrichosis

20

What is the defining feature of the Zygomycota?

coenocytic hyphae

21

What are the different diseases produced by Zygomycetes?

1. mycotic ruminitis
2. mycotic placentitis
3. subcutaneous granulomas

22

What is the infectious particle for pythium?

motile biflagellated spores

23

What agents are sensitive to cycloheximide?

- zygomycetes
- cryptococcus
- dermatophytes
- most saprophytic fungi

24

What are the diagnostic tests for Crypto?

- direct exam. of smears from exudates
- culture
- immunodiagnosis (best)

25

Causes lesions on the skin, usually in rings but not always.

Dematophytes

26

Eye involvement is common (mostly in cats, but some in dogs).

Cryptococcus

27

Produces mastitis in cattle:

Cryptococcus

28

Ulcerative lesions of the nose, mouth sinuses, and pharynx are common:

Cryptococcus

29

Usually localizes in the CNS

Cryptococcus

30

In birds - lesions involve the mouth, crop, proventriculus, and gizzard, consisting of white circular paths or white elongated areas along the folds of the mucosa.

Candidas

31

In cattle - causes dyspnea, pneumonia, nasal discharge, diarrhea, wasting. Mastiting, abortion, and ruminitis can occur.

Candidas

32

Piglets - pseudomemebrane on the tongue, esophagus, and stomach causing vomiting and rapid wasting.

Candidas

33

In dogs and cats - skin issues, ear infection, pyodermas.

Candidas

34

Only species to form part of the normal human and animal cutaneous commensal flora.

Mallasseia pachydermitis

35

Causes several cutaneoous diseases, systemic disease in suitably predisposed humans, and dermatitis in a wide range of animals:

Mallasseia pachydermitis

36

Chronic otitis extern and pododermatitis of dogs:

Mallasseia pachydermitis

37

Avian - diffuse infection of air sacs. Diffuse pneumonic form. Nodular pneumonic form known as brooder pneumonia:

Aspergillosis

38

Cattle - uterine, placental, or fetal skin infections may result in abortion. Mastitis can occur

Aspergillosis

39

Equine - abortions and guttural pouch infections. Eye infections are serious.

Aspergillosis

40

Dogs - nasal aspergillosis. Osteomyelitis is a common finding

Aspergillosis

41

Penguins - pneumonia when housed inadequately

Aspergillosis

42

In what species does intestinal aspergillosis occur in?

calves, foals, and cats

43

Mycotic ruminitis in calves caused by Absidia, Rhizopus, Mucor, or Rhizomucor

Zygomycetes - Order Mucorales

44

Mycotic placentitis in cows caused by Mucor and Mortierella.

Zygomycetes - Order Mucorales

45

Subcutaneous granulomas in dogs by Absidia, Cunninghamella, Syncephalastrum spp.:

Zygomycetes - Order Mucorales

46

Which fungal species causes mycotic placentitis?

Zygomycetes (Order Mucorales) Mucor and Morierella

47

Conidiobolus coronatus infect mucocutaneous site to produce sinusitis, nasopharyngitis or upper respiratory disease in horses.

Zygomycetes - Order Entomophthales

48

Basidiobolus ranrum infections occur as SQ mycosis of the trunk and extremities in cattle horses.

Zygomycetes - Order Entomophthales

49

What are the common symptoms of the pulmonary form of Blastomycosis?

1. chronic respiratory issues
2. weight loss
3. fever
4. cough and dyspnea
5. ocular problems
6. lameness
7. lymphadenopathy
8. "snow storm" in lungs

50

What are the common symptoms for the ocular form of blastomycosis?

1. uveitis
2. panophthalmitis
3. Glaucoma
4. acute retinal detachment

51

What are the common symptoms for the skin lesions produced by blastomycosis?

1. found with pulmonary form
2. granulomatous nodules and draining tracts
3. pyogranulomatous response
4. greasy exudate and matted hair around an area of ulcerated skin

52

What are the common symptoms for the bone lesions associated with blastomycosis?

1. lameness
2. invades osseous tissues
3. concurrent lymphadenopathy
4. Rads - osteolytic lesions at ends of long bones

53

What are the common symptoms for the genitourinary form of blastomycosis?

1. prostatis
2. hematuria, pyruia

54

What are the most common symptoms associated with histo in cats?

respiratory

55

What are the most common symptoms associated with histo in dogs?

GI

56

Which fungal disease is associated with cough and/or chronic diarrhea (may be bloody with mucus), weight loss, anorexia, fever, anemia, peripheral lymphadenopathy? The GI form is often seen in combination with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly.

Histoplasmosis

57

Which fungal disease is associated with emaciation, muscle atrophy, debilitation, painful bones and joints, lameness, skin infections, etc.?

Coccidiomycosis

58

Lesions are confined to the skin and SQ tissue as nodules or granulomas which may spread along lymphatics and often ulcerate and drain

Sporotrichosis

59

Systemic dissemination is rare but may spread to bones or internal organs and pylmonary disease is rare

Sporotrichosis

60

What are the GI signs associated with Pythium?

1. vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia
2. A firm abdominal mass
3. thickened stomach wall
4. In horses, the lesions are granulomatous, fistulated and/or ulcerated

61

What are the hosts and reservoirs for zoophilic dermatophytes?

animals

62

What is the reservoir for geophilic dermatophytes?

soil

63

Know which animals amplify Sporotrichosis so that when they introduce it back into the environment it causes false zoonosis.

Cats

64

What type f tissue is invaded by the dermatophytes?

only non-viable keratinous tissue

65

How far do dermatophytes grow down into the hair follicle?

Grow down to the Adamson's fringe, a zone just above the area of keratin synthesis based on association of the dermal papillae with the hair bulb.

66

Dermatophyte that is zoophilic and in dogs, cats, and horses?

Microsporum canis

67

Dermatophytes that is geophilic and in dogs and horses:

Microsporum gypseum

68

Dermatophytes that is ubiquitous and in dogs, horses, and lab animals:

Trichyophyton mentagrophytes

69

Quickest, easiest, simply, most reliable way to identify fungi.

direct examination of the fungus

70

What stain do you use for dermatophytes?

PAS stain

71

What stain do you use for Cryptococcus?

India ink (shows capsule)

72

What are the two "big" stains?

PAS, GMS

73

What type of fungus do you not culture?

dimorphs

74

List off the dimorphic fungi (4):

1. blastomycosis
2. histoplasmosis
3. coccidioidomycosis
4. sporotrichosis

75

What agent is associated with nasopharyngitis in horses?

Conidiobolus coronatus (A zygomycete that infects mucocutaneous site to produce nasopharyngitis in horses.)

76

Which fungi get in the eyes of animals?

- pythium
- cryptococcus
- blastomycosis
(Hard to diagnose, hard to treat)

77

Brooder pneumonia in chickens is caused by:

Aspergillosis fumigatus

78

Inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis via inhibition of squalene epoxidase

terbinafine

79

inhibits fungal protein synthesis by replacing uracil with 5-fluouracil in fungal RNA

flucytosine

80

Inhibits thymidylate synthetase via 5-fluorodeoxy-uridine monophosphate and interferes with DNA synthesis

flucytosine

81

Inhibition of cytochrome P450. Stops creation of ergosterol.

Fluconazole, itraconazole, ketaconazole

82

Blocks synthesis of a major fungal cell wall component, 1-3-beta-D-glucan:

- caspofungin
- micafungin
- anidulafungin

83

Binds to sterols (mainly ergosterol) and disrupts osmotic integrity of the fungal membrane. This results in leakage of intracellular K, Mg, sugars, and metabolisms and eventually cell death.

Amphotericin B

84

Inhibits fungal mitosis by disrupting the mitotic spingle through interaction with polymerized microtubules

griseofulvin

85

Know the treatment for Pythium.

There is no treatment. Surgical removal may be attempted but is non-successful.

86

What causes pseudomembrane on the tongue, esophagus, and stomach causing vomiting and rapid wasting in piglets:

Candida