NA groups Flashcards
What was the Society for American Indians?
Establishes in 1911 by 20 educated NA men and women. An attempt to establish an inter-tribal pressure group to campaign for better education and healthcare.
Why was the SAI ineffective?
There were few funds to challenge discrimination in courts.
There was lack of support from other NA, possibly due to a lack of communication as they were spread across US.
There was disunity within the group about what they wanted for NA. Some wanted to resist assimilation but others saw it as the only route to improvement.
When was the National Congress of American Indians set up and why?
1944, the most lasting and significant outcome of the wartime experience for NA.
Set up in response to moves to end reservations and completely assimilate NA into US society.
Why was the NCAI significant?
Represented a realisation that to bring about real change NA needed to be united and not divided, such as by tribal conflict.
What did the NCAI do?
Used the courts to challenge discrimination in employment, unequal education provision and the breaking of treaties.
What did the NCAI achieve?
Partly responsible for the Indian Claims Commission being set up in 1946.
It had some success in the 1960s in achieving improvement for NA through the courts. Obtained a pledge from Kennedy to develop human and natural resources on reservations. This was not fulfilled before his death
Why was the NCAI ineffective?
Young NA were frustrated w/ their slow progress and felt that they were out of touch w/ the majority of NA as the members were mostly successful assimilated NA. There was a significant no. of NA left who did not want assimilation.
When was the National Indian Youth Council established?
What did the NIYC do?
Young ppl using non-violent confrontation like fish ins. They also used the media a lot to spread awareness. It indicated a change in in NA attitudes and a willingness to unite in protest.
In 1964, 100s of NA assembled in Washington for recognition as part of Johnsons war on poverty.
Why was the NIYC ineffective?
They achieved little and many NA thought progress was too slow.
When was the American Indian Movement established?
What did AIM do in terms of racial discrimination against young NA by police?
NA patrolled the streets wearing red berets and jackets and monitored police activity.
There was a decline in the arrest and imprisonment of NA as well as the no. of young NA offenders.
What did AIM do in 1971?
Occupation of Mount Rushmore (the Black Hills)
An attempt to reassert the disputed ownership of sacred burial grounds of Lakota Sioux Indians.
Renamed it Mount Crazy Horse. Other NA subsequently laid claim to Black Hills and set up camp there.
They were eventually evicted and the ownership of territory is still disputed.
What did AIM do in 1972?
Took over the BIA in Washington. The purpose was to raise awareness of the unjust treatment of NA. It followed the arrival of the Trail of Broken Treaties caravan and a fleet of cars, vans and buses carrying 1000 NA protestors. Intended to be peaceful but there was violence when authorities tried to evict them.
What did AIM do in 1973?
Occupied Wounded Knee. The site of the 1890 massacre of Sioux and Pine Ridge Reservation. It occurred due to suspected financial dealings of the reservation president and maltreatment of NA inhabitants.
Violent and lasted 71 days. Involved fed. marshals, FBI and military.
Ended w/ negotiated settlement. 2 leaders arrested but acquitted.