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Flashcards in Names Deck (29):
1

Ainsworth

- Devised an assessment technique called the Strange Situation Classification (SSC) to investigate how attachments might vary between children.
- The Strange Situation was devised by Ainsworth & Wittig (1969) and was based on Ainsworth’s previous Uganda (1967) and later Baltimore studies

2

Aristotle

- Superiority of mind, reason, rationality, masters, men and humans over the body, passion, emotions, slaves, women, and animals
- Pride is okay in MODERATION, important to living a good life

3

Bandura

- Concept of self-efficacy
- Social learning theory
- Observational learning theory – experiment with children and “bobo doll” (monkey-see, monkey-do)

4

Bowlby

- Mothers and their infants are biologically predisposed to become attached to each other.
- Child is born with proximity promoting behaviors and then develops proximity seeking behaviors.
- Infants develop a secure attachment or an insecure one (anxious/ambivalent, avoidant) or none at all…disorganized/disoriented based on the quality and consistency of the caregiving.

5

Bronfenbrenner

- Bronfebrenner (1994) bioecological model of nested influences on development.
- Inner circle = microsystem—family, teachers, peers, coworkers
- Next level = mesosystem---microsystems interact, and each subsystem directly includes the target person.
- Exosystems involve multiple subsystems interacting but not all directly involve the targeted person
- Macrosystems involve the above and social norms and roles in the neighborhood, community and culture.
- Chronosystem involves how all of this changes over time
- contextual influences

6

Damasio

- Body maps onto the brain
- Consciously minded regulation

7

Darwin

- The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
- Serviceable associated habits
- Inheritance of acquired characteristics
- Shame: blushing face, turning away, looking down; pride: holding head high and body erect trying to look dominant and big

8

Ekman

- FACS coding system for adult facial expressions

9

Eisenberg

• Emotion-related regulation and relations with adjustment and socio-emotional competence; moral and emotional development: altruism, empathy: socialization and cultural factors in emotion regulation/dysregulation, adjustment, social competence, and prosocial responding
• Emotionrelated socialization behaviours (ERSBs)
• Emotion-related regulation and relations with adjustment and socio-emotional competence; moral and emotional development: altruism, empathy: socialization and cultural factors in emotion regulation/dysregulation, adjustment, social competence, and prosocial responding
• Emotionrelated socialization behaviours (ERSBs)

10

Freud

• Freud believed that when we explain our behavior to ourselves or others (conscious mental activity), we rarely give a true account of our motivation
• Founding father of psychoanalysis, a method for treating mental illness and a theory which explains human behavior

11

Gottlieb

• Probabilistic epigenesis – the development of an organism is dependent on the bidirectional influences of interacting biological and environmental forces that form a larger system.
• His view attempts to encompass all the factors influencing development, how these factors interact with one another and how this interaction shapes individual development. He believed these influences occur over the course of evolution as well as throughout an individual's lifespan

12

Gottman

• Four horsemen of the apocalypse: Defensiveness, Criticism (different from just complaining), Stonewalling, Contempt (most toxic)
- ATTUNE (awareness of emotion, turn towards emotion, tolerance of emotion, understanding emotion, non-defensive listening to emotion and empathy towards emotion)

13

Gross

• Known for his research in emotion and emotion regulation

14

Harter

• Domain-specific importance to individual (if its important to the individual it will affect their self-esteem)
• Worthiness/Self-worth (child-physical appearance, social
• acceptance, plus for adolescents-romantic appeal, close friendships), Competence (athletic,
• scholastic, behavioural conduct, plus for adolescents-job performance)

15

Holodynski & Friedlmeier

Holodynski & Friedlmeier • Sociocultural Internalization Model: interactions with caregivers result in links between emotions and expressions that are internalized by children

16

Izard

• MAX and AFFEX coding system for infant facial expression
• Differential emotions theory

17

James

- Concept of the self

18

Kagan

• Kagan has shown that an infant's temperament is quite stable over time, in that certain behaviors in infancy are predictive of certain other behavior patterns in adolescence
• extensive work on temperament and gave insight on emotion

19

Kohlberg

- Kohlberg used the story of “Heinz”to show stages of moral development
• By studying the answers from children of different ages to these questions, Kohlberg hoped to discover how moral reasoning changed as people grew older

20

Lazarus

• Human mind includes: cognition, motivation, emotion
• Core relational themes pg. 3 of text (emotions)
• Coping vs. emotion regulation
- cognitive motivational relational model

21

Lewis

• Self-conscious emotions like shame and pride emerge between 15 and 30 months
- rouge on the nose experiment

22

Loevinger

- Ego development theory – how deeply a person thinks and feels about self, others, and life situations

23

Masten

• Research on the development of resilience and for advancing theory on the positive outcomes of children and families facing adversity

24

McAdams

• Three level model of personality
 Dispositional traits, a person’s general tendencies (Big 5)
 Characteristic adaptations, a person’s desires, beliefs, concerns, and coping mechanisms
 Life stories, the stories that give a life a sense of unity, meaning, and purpose

25

Perry

• Studied intellectual development in the college years and derived 3 levels:
• Dualistic absolutism, generalized relativism, & commitment within realism

26

Rothbart

• Expert in infant temperament development
• Drew generalizations about the development of temperament in small children by identifying emotional reactions
• conducted extensive laboratory work on the early development of the emotions, impulsivity, activity, and attention

27

Saarni

• Focused on how children learn that they can adopt an "emotional front," that is, what they express emotionally need not match what they really feel
• Investigated how children use this knowledge strategically in their interpersonal relations with others as well as when coping with aversive feelings
- emotional competence
- emotional intelligence

28

Sroufe

• Leslie Greenberg (2008) and Alan Sroufe  Shame and humiliation can be counteracted via mindfulness, meditative relaxation, self-soothing, self-empathy, self-compassion.
• Taught during empathic attunement with others in interactions. Acceptance and validation of emotions.
• Target separate self-esteem domains as well as global self-esteem in individual or group
• sessions

29

Tomkins

• Emotions are the primary motivators of behavior.
• Facial feedback (goosebumps, flushed cheeks, etc)
• Affect amplification, emotion co-assembling
• Darwin and Tomkins– emotions are inborn, cross-cultural and universal