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Flashcards in Key Words Deck (118):

Affect Mirroring

socialization process by which parents interpret their child's emotional states and reflect them back to them in a manner that demonstrates how to regulate affect (Holodynski & Friedlmeier)


Affect Optimization

optimizing well-being through the use and experience of emotions exemplified in the work of M. Powell Lawton with older adults (Labouvie-Vief, Medler; QMagai)


Affect Reciprocity

In dyadic communication, how one member of a dyad reciprocates the valence of emotion demonstrated by the other (i.e.: reciprocating positive affect with positive affect, negative with negative, positive with negative or negative with positive)


Affect Valuation Theory

a theory that proposes that ideal affect of how you would ideally like to feel in certain situations varies from one culture to another (Tsai)


Affective Schemas

Mental representations of relatively stable modes of reacting emotionally that are influenced by the processes of assimilation or accommodation (Piaget)


Affective Social Competence

The ability to effectively manage affect, communicate an awareness and acceptance of affect in self and others, and to be responsive to others' affective communications (Halberstadt, Denham, Dunsmore)



a maladaptive condition in which individuals have difficulty describing their own feelings and states of emotional arousal


Authentic Self-Esteem

feeling good about the self in a way that shows a balance between humility and vanity and that involves making realistic attributions about the self based on specific situations, tasks, and one's own behaviours (Mruk, Lewis)


Autobiographical Memories

memories of the self that situate a person across time and space and that give emotions meaning to the person's life stories and identities (Fivush, Nelson, Fitzgerald, McAdams)


Background Emotions

Observable shifts over time in indicators of emotion in the face, body language, muscle tone and gestures (Damasio, Feldman)


Behavioural Epigenetics

a field of study that examines social and physical environmental effects on the epigenome. The focus is on examining changes in the epigenome at various points in time and as passed on across generations (Cicchetti, Keating, Lester, Conradt, Marsit)


Behavioural Inhibition

A temperamental quality characterized by low reactivity to the environment and inhibited behaviours when confronted with novel stimulation (Kagan)


Brain Plasticity

the idea that structural and functional aspects of the brain change in a flexible manner over the course of development and in reaction to the environment


Broaden and Build Theory

theory that maintains that positive emotions help to build a strong foundation of trust in the environment and thus leads to the creative consideration of broader possibilities and the promotion of well-being of happiness (Frederickson)


Callous-Unemotional Traits

a deficit in the ability to experience and demonstrate prosocial emotions, remorse, guilt and empathy (DSM-5)



the constraining or narrowing of options or pathways as development proceeds (Waddington)


Coercive Parenting

parenting style in which a repetitive negative cycle of emotional interacting and coercion develops between the parent and the child (Patterson, Forgatch, DeGarmo)


Cognitive Appraisal

though processes that involve how people evaluate, interpret, and give meaning to their emotional experiences (Arnold, Lazarus)


Cohort Effects

group differences that are due to commonalities of a generation rather than age



describes cultures in which emphasis is places more on the group needs and value maintenance than on the individual's needs and rights (Triandis)


Conceptual Metaphor

using a more concrete emotion concept, such as "boiling with anger" to stand for an abstract one, such as "anger" (Kovecses, Lakoff, Johnson)


Conceptual Metonymy

using part of an emotion concept (drop in temperature with fear) such as having "cold feet", to stand for another part or the whole emotion concept such as "fear" (Kovecses, Lakoff, Johnson)


Coping Flexibility

ability to flexibly switch from using one coping strategy to another, an ability that is especially important when the controllability of a situation changes (Cheng)


Core Relational Themes

fundamental theme underlying each emotion that reveals how cognition is linked to motivation. Evident during encounters between a person and an environment that can result in harm or benefits to the person (Lazarus)


Cultural Genogram

family tree examining two or more generations with an emphasis on the various ethnic background and cultural values that may coincide or be in conflict with each other (Hardy, Laszloffy)


Cumulative Protections

protective factors (including preventative interventions) that can accumulate over time and thus pile up and add to resilience (Yoshikawa)


Decoding (judgement) Accuracy

Accurately interpreting the intended emotional feeling conveyed by someone else


Defensive Self-Esteem

feeling goo about the self due to an exaggerated, unrealistic and excessive sense of either self-worth or competence or both (Mruk)


Depression Composite

a composite of variables that assess self-worth, affect and feelings of hopelessness that together predict suicidal ideation (Harter, Marold, Whitesell)


Developmental Psychopathology

an approach to research and clinical work that considers continuities and discontinuities in development over the lifespan, and adaptive and maladaptive functioning with relatively [more emphasis on prevention and resilience than diagnosis and treatment]* (Rutter, Sroufe)


Differential Susceptibility

a model of biological susceptibility to the influence of the environment in which a person may be more susceptible to both risks in adverse environments and to enhances development in enriches environments (Boyce, Ellis)


Differentiation and Dynamical Integration (DDI)

perspective that integrates theories of emotional expressions with a dynamic system point of view. Physiological, cognitive and social aspects of development along with conscious self-awareness become integrated and organized and result in specific emotions such as anger, sadness, fear or happiness (Camras)


Difficult Temperament

(Chess, Thomas)


Display Rules

implicit or explicit rules learned within social and cultural settings that specify how, when where, and with whom emotions can be expressed (Ekman, Friesen)


Dual Failure

model in which children with conduct disorder show deficits both academically and socially (Patterson, Stoolmiller)


Dyadic Coping

joint efforts made by dyad partners to cope with stress to address their common goals (Bodenmann)


Dyadic Reciprocity

collaboration between family members of a dyad as they interact harmoniously to accomplish the goals of a joint activity (Feldman, Bamberger, Kanat-Maymon)


Dyadic Stress

stressful life experiences that affect both members of dyads in the family at about the same time and place (Bodenmann)


Dynamic Systems

construct derives from mathematics and physics that has been applies to psychology. various components oof a single system may develop or change independently of each other but may coalesce and stabilize at a given point in time as they are attracted to a particular attractor state (Thelen, Smith)


Easy-Going Temperament

(Chess, Thomas)


Effortful Control

temperamental quality that involves the ability to inhibit and regulate behaviours (Rothbart, Putnam, Evans)


Elaborative Reminiscing Style

involves the parents adding new details and relevant new information while guiding a child's interpretations as the child remembers past emotional events (Fivush, Nelson, Laible, Panfile)


Emotion Acceptance, Awareness and Coaching

the three underlying component processes that are important for parental meta-emotion philosophy and socialization of emotion in children (Gottman)


Emotion Scripts

Scripts for the causes and consequences of specific emotions linked to common events and routines within a given culture (Saarni, White, Widen, Russell)


Emotional Attunement



Emotional Biases

a bias towards particular emotional experiences and expressions in personality over time that are nonetheless subject to possible change (Magai)


Emotional Competence

age-appropriate ability to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of other's and own emotions. (Saarni)


Emotional Self-Efficacy

feeling that you have the capacity, skills and resources needed to achieve a desired emotional outcome (Saarni)


Emotionally Focused Family Therapy (EFFT)



Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT)

therapy in which the processing of emotions is targeted by facilitating awareness during emotion arousal, emotion regulation, reflection on emotions, and transformation of their meaning (Greenberg)


Emotion-Related Socialization Behaviours (ERSBs)

emotion-relevant parenting practices meant to teach children about their own and others' emotions and how, when, and where to display or control emotions according to the situation or culture (Eisenberg, Cumberland, Spinrad)



functional layer of genetic information that contains genetic markers that result from interactions with the environment (Lester, Conradt, Marsit)


Ethnic Gloss

use of a broad geographical area hold the same views (i.e.: Asia); to avoid ethnic gloss, it's helpful to specify regions or countries wherever possible (Trimble, DIckson)


Executive Functions

set of cognitive skills that include inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility that assist individuals in regulating attention, behaviour and emotions (Obradovic)


Expression Accuracy

conveying the intended emotional feeling accurately for others to interpret through non-verbal channels


Externalizing Disorder

disorders in which the primary features are behavioural misconduct and angry disruptions that disturb others


Facial Feedback

hypothesis that emotional feelings arise from arousal feedback originating in skin changes (i.e.: flushed, goosebumps) and muscle movements (Tomkins, McCarter)


Facial Mimicry

mimicry of another person's facial expression such as when an adult opens his or her mouth in surprise and an infant mimics the expression (Meltzoff, Moore)


Five Domains of Socialization

domains in which parents make attempts to socialize their children according to their goals. They are: protection, reciprocity, control, guided learning and group participation


Four Horsemen of the Apolcalypse

Four behaviours that are part of a communication pattern that occurs when partners are on a pathway that predicts a break-up or divorce. They are: defensiveness, criticism, stonewalling and contempt (Gottman)


Functional Neurocircuitry

connections or circuits between brain regions that serve particular functions



the idea that development is uneven with some components developing earlier than others



a term that describes cultures in which emphasis is placed more on the individual's needs and rights than on group needs and value maintenance (Triandis)


Interactional Synchrony

correspondence in the movements of infants to the speech sounds they hear in the social environment (Condon, Sander)


Inter-Informant Agreement

a form of reliability in which the degree of agreement is assessed among various informants (i.e.: mother father or teacher) as they rate the same behaviours (i.e.: child's aggression)


Internalization Theory

emotional expressions are signs for actions and serve a regulatory function. in infancy the signs are co-constructed and co-regulated with caregivers, but become increasingly internalized with increases in reflection and self-regulation in later development (Holodynski, Friedmeier)


Intuitive Parenting

Parenting behaviours that have evolved to allow parents to intuitively respond to their infants' emotional and cognitive needs as the infants are learning (Papousek)


Jealousy Complex

complexity of possible primary emotions, such as anger, fear or sadness that may underlie jealous feelings in a triad such as a parent with two siblings (Volling, McElwain, Miller)


Launch and Grow Model

a model of adolescent depression that proposes that maternal depression launches risk factors for children that eventually lead to adolescent depression (Garber, Cole)


Linguistic Relativity

The idea originating from Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf that perceptions and experiences, including those involving emotions, depend upon or are relative to the linguistic terms available to describe the perceptions and experiences (Lucy, Russell)


Looking-Glass Self

The idea originating from Charles Horton Cooley that others affect how we view ourselves and their appraisals of us are reflected back to us (Franks, Gecas)


Measurement Equivalence

measuring the same or equivalent underlying contructs with different groups of people who vary by age, gender or culture



the ability to reflect on the internal mental states of self and others that develops during interactions with important others (Fonagy, Gergely, Target)



Compiling the results from a number of studies measuring the same contruct by taking the average of the strength of the relations among the variables that are common among the studies


Mindful Parenting

the ability of parents to attentively engage in the process of mindful self- and other-awareness while parenting by reflecting on their parenting choices in the moment and by making intentional decisions with less possibility of later regrets (Duncan, Coatsworth, Greenberg)



tendency in parents to treat their young children as thinking and feeling beings with minds of their own (Meins)


Mirror Neurons

Neurons that are activated through direct experience and by observing or imitating another person (Rizzolatti, Craighero)


Narrative Coherence

codable feature of oral or written narratives that assesses how complete and comprehensible the narrative is and how internally consistent the details are (Fiese, Waters, Fivush)


Narrative Identity

life story created by a person to give his or life meaning (Bauer, McAdams, Pals)


Negative Emotionality

temperamental quality that involves aspects of fear, anger and sadness (Rothbart, Putnam, Evans)



Developmental changes that occur within individuals over the lifespan


Orienting Sensitivity

temperamental quality that involves sensitivity to attending to stimulation within the self or the environment (Rothbart, Putnam, Evans)


Orthogenetic Principle

principle that development proceeds over time from being less to more complex, differentiated, and hierarchically organized (Werner)


Paralinguistic Features

features of language that convey meanings, including emotional meanings, such as sound patters, rhythms of speech, voice intonations and interjections. Such paralanguage may also be text-based and include the use of emoji and emoticons


Parental Beliefs

mental representations that parents have about any aspect of their functioning as a parents (Sigel)


Parental Embodied Mentalization (PEM)

parents' ability to consider the infant as a mentalistic partner while they are interacting non-verbally through facial expressions, bodily movements and making bodily contact (Shai, Belsky)


Parental Meta-Emotion Philosophy (PMEP)

how parents think and feel about their own emotions and those of their children (Gottman, Katz, Hooven)


Parental Prearming

Parental attempts to prepare their children for how to handle possible future emotionally laden situations (Padilla-Walker)


Parental Self-Efficacy Beliefs

parents' perception of their own capability of performing the role of being a parent (Coleman, Karraker)


Perceived Physical Appearance

how individuals perceive and evaluate their physical appearance which then influences their sense of self-worth or worthiness of being liked or loved (Harter)



changes that occur within species over historical time


Possible Selves

possibilities for the kind of selves individuals aspire to be in the future, or the kind of selves they used to wish to be in the past (Markus)



features of communication patterns that convey the underlying social intentions and emotional meaning of a form of interaction, such as using polite, respectful terminology and greetings


Primary Emotions

biologically based emotional reactions that are adaptive, or learned emotional reactions that are maladaptive that form the underlying foundation for the processing of emotions. Construct used in emotion-focused therapy (Greenberg)


Probabilistic Epigenesis

developmental systems theory that emphasizes that higher forms or levels of complexity that emerge from earlier ones cannot be predictably determined from earlier ones and are thus probabilistic in nature (Gottlieb)


Process Model of Emotion Regulation

five catefories of ways to regulate emotion:
-selecting a situation relevant to goals
- modifying the situation to regulate emotions in self or others
- directing attention in the moment to regulate emotions
- changing thoughts to reappraise the situation and thus alter emotions
- modulating or altering emotional responses directly by attempts to enhance or suppress emotions (Gross)



unique conscious quality of how human sensory and perceptual experiences feel to the person having the experience (Ramachandran, Hirstein)


Racial Socialization

efforts by older family members with younger ones to instil racial pride and enhance awareness and caution about how to counteract racial prejudice and discrimination (Evans, George)


Randomized Control Trial (RCT) Interventions

interventions in which participants are randomly assigned to a manualized intervention or to a comparison group as a control; therapists who conduct the treatments are supervised and checks are made to ensure therapists follow the manual (Cicchetti)


Reaction Range

term originating from Theodosius Dobzhansky and Irving Gottesman that was used in the past to refer to the limits on phenotype set by a person's genotype (Griffiths, Tabery)


Redemptive Self

a common part of life narrative in which individuals first experience adversity that contaminates their life stories but then manage to resiliently overcome it leading to redemption (McAdams)


Reference Values

Goals, standards and norms incorporated by individuals as they self-regulate and that eventually supersede their temperamental characteristics (Denissen)


Regulatory Capacity

temperamental quality in infants similar to effortful control in children in which infants are able to stay focused and show pleasure in low-intensity activities (Shiner)


Relational Intervention

intervention approach that emphasizes empathetically assisting mothers to understand the reasons for how they react to their infants, and then helping them to modify their interactions with the goal of improving their emotional relationship (Stronach, Toth, Rogosch, Ciccetti)



provision of appropriate resources, support, and assistance when engaging in the process of socialization (Vygotsky)


Secondary Emotions

defensive emotional reactions that occur when primary emotional reactions are hindered or blocked. Construct used in emotion focused therapy (Greenberg)


Secure Based Scripts

research paradigm in which a series of words is used to prompt participants to tell attachment-relevant stories (H.S. Waters, et al)


Self Esteem Moments

important events or turning points during a person's life that have the potential to significantly influence a person's sense of self-worth or competence in either a positive or negative direction (Mruk)


Self-Organizing Tendencies

term used in dynamic systems models that refers to the tendency for systems to be attracted to the goal of self-organizing and stabilizing in a preferred configuration given the current traditions (Thelen, Smith)


Sequential Designs

combination of cross-sectional, longitudinal and time-lag research designs meant to optimize the advantages and minimize the disadvantages of each (Lerner)


State of Action Readiness

consequence of emotion that prepares the organism to get ready to act, such as by approaching or avoiding (Frijda)


Slow-To-Warm-Up Temperament

(Chess, Thomas)


Still-Face Paradigm

research paradigm in which mothers hold a neutral facial expression and ignore their infants' bids for attention and responsiveness; this pattern often occurs in mothers who are depressed (Field, Tronick)



temperamental quality that involves positive emotions and a tendency to be social and outgoing (Rothbart, Putnam, Evans)


Theory of Mind

belief system concerning the internal mental and emotional states of self and others (Bretherton, Beeghly)


Three Primary Ethics

ethical values that are emphasized to varying degrees in different cultures. They are of autonomy, community and divinity (Shweder)


Vitality Contours

Patterns of affective arousal in infants, such as accelerating, fading or explosive bursts that indicate how infants are experience and perceiving their environments (Stern)


Zone of Proximal Development

zone of learning and comprehension that is just beyond a student's current level. Effective teachers/parents provide challenging material within this zone and assist their students/children via scaffolding (Vygotsky)