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Flashcards in Nationalism Deck (54):

Define nationalism

The political belief that humankind can be divided into distinct nations and that the nation is the centre of all political organisation therefore, it is more important than any other social group or body


Features of nationalism 

  • The basic belief of nationalism is that the naton is, or should be, the central unit of political organisation
  • It is widely associated with the principle of self determination
  • It is based on the assumption that humankind can be divided into distinct nations


Characteristics of politcal/civic nationalism

  • Inclusive
  • Universalist
  • Equal nations
  • Rational/principled
  • Natural sovereignty 
  • Voluntarisic
  • Based on citizenship
  • Civic Loyalts
  • Cultural Diversity
  • Progressive


Characteristics of cultural forms of nationalism

  • Exclusive
  • Particularist
  • Emotional/Irrational
  • Volkism
  • Ethnic allegiance
  • Cultural unity
  • Reactionary


What are the implications of the political forms of nationalism

  • It implies that al nations are equal in the sense that they have an equal right to exist
  • Nationalism seeks to unite a people who have similar political interests
  • Nations can be multi-cultural
  • The role of the state is to articulate the political will of the nation
  • It implies the national interests are more important than the individual's therefore it is collectivist


Implicatons of the ethno-cultural view of nationalism

  • Unique nations can lead some to develop a sense of cultural superiority(chauvanism)
  • Can lead to conflict(difference politics)
  • Can be a breeding ground for xenephobia and racism
  • It implies that the national interests are more important than the individual's therefore t s colletivist
  • The role of the state is to protect and strengthen cultural heritage and sense of national identity


Define Nation

A nation is a body of people who possess some sense of a single common identity, with a shared historical tradition, with major elements of common culture(language and religion) and with a substantial proportion of them inhabiting an identifiable geographical area


How can nations be defined objectively

  • Single common ancestor
  • Common heritage/history
  • Common culture
  • Ethnic/racial diversity
  • Religion
  • Language


How can nations be defined subjectively

  • Patriotism
  • Civic loyalty
  • Voluntaristic


Define patriotism

Patriotism us a sentiment and a psychological attatchment to one's nation, it is literally 'a love of one's country'


Political definition of nation

The nation is a 'psycho-cultural' entity; the nation is defined by its members, a group of people who regard themselves as a natural political community and are disguised by shared loyalty or affection in the form of patriotism


Characteristics of a nation

  • Nationality
  • Cultural
  • Psychological
  • Emotional
  • Patriotism
  • National sovereignty
  • Can be trans-national
  • Can be inclusive


Characteristics of the state

  • Citizenship
  • Political
  • Rational
  • Civic duty
  • Political sovereignty 
  • Control over a defined territory


Why are the terms nation and race confused

  • Nationalists believe that the state arises out of the nation, due to a people's desire for political and economic organisation
  • As a result, the concepts of citizenship and natonality are often taken to mean the same thing. Political and national sovereignty are often considered to be the same thing


Why do nationalists belive the state is a political ideal

  • The state arises out of a nation(they are organc structures)- the state arises out of a need for national security, social and political organisation
  • The state promises stability- Political and cultural identity overlap and can be stregnthened. This can reduce conflict and strengthen law and order
  • The state can best articulate the political interests of the people 
  • Statehood is very important to some people who see themselves as distinct natons with no ability to pursue their national interest- statehood promises national independence/freedom


Why might some nationalists be concerened with saying the nation state is a political ideal

  • Statehood creates barriers between nations
  • Divisions can create conflict/ chauvanism
  • The power of the state could be used as a tool for reinforcing dominant culture
  • Nations who are denied statehood and therefore self-determination may become revolutionary


Define Race

Race refers to biological or genetic characteristics shared by a group of people 


Define racialism

The belief that humankind can be dvided into biologically distinct races, and that these racial differences are significant in culture politics


Nation vs Race

Cultural vs Biological

Changeable vs Unchangeable

Can be inclusve vs Exclusive


Nationalism vs Racialism

Humankind is divided into nations vs humankind is divided into races

The state is the central principle of social organisation vs principles about social organisation are determined by race


Why are nation and race often confused

  • Many nations cosider themselves to be a race because many share physiological commonalities
  • Some ethno-cultural nationalists argue that nations derive frome race
  • Right-wing nationalists believe that race, nationhood and culture are intrinsically linked
  • Racists have suggested that races can be arranged in a heirachy from superior to inferior


Why are nationalism and racialism confused

  • Racialists believe that there are fundamental biological differences amongst the people of the world 
  • Racialists believe that these genetic differences lead to cultural, intelectual and moral differences. Therefore, racial difference is politically significant
  • Racialist views are expressed best in the idea of volkism
  • Racialists have suggested that races can be arranged in a heirachy, from superior to inferior


Define volkism

A german word which suggests that nationhood arises where 'a people is bound together by a racial identity, culture, language, religion, mythology and a historical attachment to land


Features of volkism

  • A nations culture is an extension of its race
  • National identity becomes synonymous with racial identity; they mean the same thing
  • Culture is an extension of race, superior races will develop superior cultures
  • Patriotism derives from racial allegiance
  • There is national spirit which derives from race and culture embodied by the nation


Implications of volkism

  • It is exclusive
  • It inevitably leads to chauvanism, xenephobia and racism
  • Superior races produce superior culture and inferior races produce degenerate culture
  • Multiculturalism is seen as a threat to racial integrity
  • The nation can inspire integral forms of nationalism
  • Expansion is justified in terms of protecting national interest


Characteristics of race

  • Primordial
  • Ethnicity
  • Biological
  • Physiological
  • Rational
  • Racialism
  • Racial sovreignty
  • Ethnic interest
  • Exclusive
  • Unchangeable


Characteristics of nationalism

  • Organic
  • Nationality
  • Cultural
  • Psychological
  • Emotional
  • Patriotism
  • National sovereignty
  • Can be trans-national
  • National interest
  • Can be inclusive


Charateristics of racialism

  • Biological/primordial
  • Culture determined by race
  • Racial allegiance
  • National spirit
  • Racial interest/ destiny
  • Exclusive


Define Culturalism

The idea that individuals are determined by their culture, that these cultures form closed, organic wholes and that the individual is unable to leave his or her own culture but rather can only realise him or herlsef within it 


What are the implication of culturalism

  • Nationalism is reactionary in that the role of the nationalism is to develop an awareness and appreciation of national traditions
  • Can lead to exclusive views of the nation
  • It is intolerant
  • Could lead to chauvanism


What is identity politics

  • Political causes are advanced on the basis of a sense of collective identity;patriotism
  • Nationalism not only advances political causes, but tells people who they are
  • Nations are widely acknowledged to be psycho-cultural entities


What are the implications of identity politics

  • Nationalism can be aggressive
  • Nationalism can be divisive
  • All nations are patriots but not all patriots are nationalists


What is the organic nation

The belief that humans naturally divide into nations, each possessing a distinctive character and seperate identity


Why do nationalist suppport the idea of an organic nation?

  • Nationalists are united in their belief that nations are organic 
  • Nations being organic explains why humans have a higher loyalty to nation and nationhood tather than any other social body or group
  • The bonds of nationhood are primordial
  • Each nation has distinctive characteristics and a seperate identity


What are the implications of an organic nation?

  • Supports the idea that the national interest is natural
  • The bonds between individuals in a nation are strong which leads to stability ad order
  • The state is peripheral as it evolves from the nation out of a need for political and economic stability


What is self determination

The idea that a people have the fundamental rigt to determine how they are governed


Why do nationalists support self determination

  • National freedom can only be secured if nations are free to set up their own nation and political institutions
  • The goal of nationalism is to set up a nation state as it is the most desirable form of political organisation but it is not possible without self determination
  • Government can be carried out by or for the people in accordance with their national interest


Implications of self determination

  • Emphasises the notion that nations have political interests and need to be independent
  • Leads to debate about what constitutes a nation
  • The promise of national freedoms for all groups os difficult to realise
  • Leads to conflict where some groups feel they are being denied rights and are therefore being oppressed
    • Woodrow Wilson said if nations were allowed to self-determine, there would be no incentive to wage war


What do liberal nationalists want?

  • All nations to have self determination
  • Nations can be inclusive and multi-cultural
  • All nations should have equal status- leads to peaceful equlibrium
  • Free trade leads to a world of interdependent states which reduces conflict


How do liberal nationalists seek to achieve their aims?


  • Supra-nationalism
  • Free trade - no custom barriers between nations
  • Liberal nationalists look toward the ideas of cosmopolitanism and internationalism


What is Supra-nationalism

The belief in the need for legal bodies such as the UN and EU to ensure equality of nations and protect weaker nations from stronger nations


Features of liberal nationslism

  1. Rational
  2. Progressive
  3. Constructive
  4. Political
  5. Equality
  6. Pluralist


What do conservative nationalists want

  • Maintain social order
  • Defend traditional institutions
  • Maintain traditions and traditional ways of life against the forces of progress
  • To maintain and strengthen cultural unity


How do conservative nationalists intend to achieve their aims?

  • Role of the state is to defend and strengthen national integrity
  • Promotion of shared values and common culture
  • Promoting a sense of national pride
  • Promote the importance of commemorations-'Remembrance Sunday' creates a sense of past achievements


Features of conservative nationalism

  1. Reactionary
  2. Patriotic loyalty
  3. Organic
  4. Emotional
  5. Cultural unity


What do right-wing nationalists want

  • Protection of racial,ethnic and cultural purity
  • Intense patriotism, see cultural differences as a threat
  • Unification of people who share the same racial/ethnic characteristics(pan nationalism)
  • Strenghtening/expansion of culture


How do right wing nationalists want to achieve their aims

  • Promote the nation as a mystical entity based on race/ethnicity
  • Strengthen ethnic allegiance- loyalty, obediance and duty ro race/ethnic group/nation
  • Hostility towards immigration
  • Militarism
  • Expansionism


Features of right wing nationalism

  1. Militaristic
  2. Jingoist
  3. Chauvanist
  4. Pan-nationalist
  5. Racialist
  6. Integral
  7. Xenephobic


What do anti colonial nationalists want?

  • Goals are articulated using the language of liberal nationalism(self determination)
  • Overthrow economic subordination
  • To achieve non-European models of 'national libereation' e.g Ghandi fusig nationalism with Hinduism
  • Psycho political regeneration created through violoence creates a new species of man-Fanon


What do post colonial nationalists want?

  • Reject and replace westen political traditions and values(the oppressor's ideology)
  • Nation building- reactionary


How do anti colonial nationalists seek to achieve their aims 

  • Most accept violence as a legitimate political tool
  • Goals articulated through the language of liberal nationalism
  • Socialist(or even marxist) in character: colonialism seen as an extended form of class opression


How do post colonial nationalists seek to achieve their aims

  • Difficulties with pluralism and democracy
  • Authoritarian rule(one party state, based on Lennist model)
  • Religous fundamentalism


Features of anti and post colonial nationalism

  1. Reactionary
  2. Revolutionary
  3. Rational
  4. Aggressive
  5. Constructive
  6. Socialist


Key distinctions between anti and post colonial nationalists

  1. Anti colonial nationalists = political, rational, progressive and destructive
  2. Post colonial nationalists = Ethno-cultural, irrational, reactionary and constructive