Flashcards in Natural hazards and tectonic hazards Deck (26):
What is a natural hazard?
A natural process which could cause death, injury or disruption To humans, property and possessions.
Name the two types of hazards you get, explain them and give examples
Natural hazards caused by land and Tectonic plates
Earthquake and volacano
Hazards caused by weather and climate
What are the different factors that affect risk?
Capacity to cope
Nature of natural hazard
Describe the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes
And the exceptions
Mostly found at plate boundaries
Some volcanoes form at hotspots where the crust is thin and the hot magma bursts through
For example Hawaii
Some earthquakes don’t form at margins due to mining
What is a destructive plate margin?
What can it form?
Where dense oceanic plate goes under continental and disintegrates due to magma
Two plates go together and forms mountains
friction causes earthquakes
Pools of magma forms and goes through cracks called vents and forms a volcanoes
What is a constructive plate boundary?
What can is form?
Where two plates move apart
Movement can cause earthquakes
When plates pull away the open magma causes volcanoes
What is a conservative plate boundary?
What can it form?
When plates slide past each other
Friction causes earthquakes
What are the three main features of earthquakes?
Focus-point where pressure is released
Seismic waves-travel out from focus
Epicentre-where seamic waves first reach directly above focus
What are the two different ways of measuring earthquakes?
Name the HIC and LIC case study’s of earthquakes and when did they happen?
L’Aquila Italy HIC 2009
Gorkha Nepal 2015 LIC
Why did an earthquake occur in L’Aquila
The Eurasian plate and African plate moved together-destructive
Why did an earthquake occur in Gorkha?
Destructive plate boundary
Give 3 primary affects of the Gorkha earthquake and what magnitude was it
8841 people died
1 million homeless
Give 3 secondary affects of the Gorkha earthquake
Caused avalanche on mt Everest and 19 people dies at base camp
Affecting tourism and local economy because people are scared of going there
Give 3 primary affects of the L’Aquila earthquake
What time did it happen what did this mean
308 people died
3:30am people weren’t ready
Give 3 secondary affects of the L’Aquila earthquake
Aftershocks and landslides
Burst main water supply neartown of Paganio
Name 2 short term responses of the Gorkha earthquake
UK raised $126 000
Red Cross provided 225000 people with tents
Name a long term responses of the Gorkha earthquake
OCHA reported $274 million of aid had been given
Name 3 short term responses of the L’Aquila earthquake
10,000 people shelters in hotels
40 000 tents given out
Italian Red Cross searching for survivors
Name 2 long term responses of the L’Aquila earthquake
No taxes paid in 2010
Students given free transport
Explain why earthquakes cause more damage in poor countries
Communication systems may be poor so population don’t know what to do in an earthquake
Construction standards are poorer
Not enough money to clean up and rebuild
Why do people continue to live in areas at risk of Tectonic hazards
Fertile land for farming from ash
Minerals for mining
Fresh water at fault lines so poorer communities live there
Tourism brings income
How does monitoring reduce the affects of Tectonic hazards
Networks of seismometers and lasers moniter earths movements so can alert of an event
How does planning reduce the affects of Tectonic hazards
Emergency supplies can be put aside
Plan evacuation routes
How does prediction reduce the affects of Tectonic hazards
By monitoring movement can forcast when earthquakes take place
By well monitoring volcanoes Can evacuate areas