Natural hazards and tectonic hazards Flashcards Preview

Geography Paper 1 Section A > Natural hazards and tectonic hazards > Flashcards

Flashcards in Natural hazards and tectonic hazards Deck (26):
1

What is a natural hazard?

A natural process which could cause death, injury or disruption To humans, property and possessions.

2

Name the two types of hazards you get, explain them and give examples

Geological
Natural hazards caused by land and Tectonic plates
Earthquake and volacano

Meteorological hazard
Hazards caused by weather and climate
Typhoon
Hurricane

3

What are the different factors that affect risk?

Vunrablility
Capacity to cope
Nature of natural hazard

4

Describe the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes
And the exceptions

Mostly found at plate boundaries

Exceptions:
Some volcanoes form at hotspots where the crust is thin and the hot magma bursts through
For example Hawaii

Some earthquakes don’t form at margins due to mining

5

What is a destructive plate margin?
What can it form?

Where dense oceanic plate goes under continental and disintegrates due to magma
Or
Two plates go together and forms mountains

friction causes earthquakes

Pools of magma forms and goes through cracks called vents and forms a volcanoes

6

What is a constructive plate boundary?
What can is form?

Where two plates move apart

Movement can cause earthquakes
When plates pull away the open magma causes volcanoes

7

What is a conservative plate boundary?
What can it form?

When plates slide past each other

Friction causes earthquakes

8

What are the three main features of earthquakes?

Focus-point where pressure is released

Seismic waves-travel out from focus

Epicentre-where seamic waves first reach directly above focus

9

What are the two different ways of measuring earthquakes?

Seismometers

Richter scale

10

Name the HIC and LIC case study’s of earthquakes and when did they happen?

L’Aquila Italy HIC 2009

Gorkha Nepal 2015 LIC

11

Why did an earthquake occur in L’Aquila

The Eurasian plate and African plate moved together-destructive

12

Why did an earthquake occur in Gorkha?

Destructive plate boundary

13

Give 3 primary affects of the Gorkha earthquake and what magnitude was it

Primary:
8841 people died
16,800 injuries
1 million homeless

Mag 7.8

14

Give 3 secondary affects of the Gorkha earthquake

Caused avalanche on mt Everest and 19 people dies at base camp
Affecting tourism and local economy because people are scared of going there

15

Give 3 primary affects of the L’Aquila earthquake
What time did it happen what did this mean

What mag

308 people died
1500 injured
67,500 homeless

3:30am people weren’t ready

Mag:6.3

16

Give 3 secondary affects of the L’Aquila earthquake

Aftershocks and landslides
Burst main water supply neartown of Paganio

17

Name 2 short term responses of the Gorkha earthquake

UK raised $126 000
Red Cross provided 225000 people with tents

18

Name a long term responses of the Gorkha earthquake

OCHA reported $274 million of aid had been given

19

Name 3 short term responses of the L’Aquila earthquake

10,000 people shelters in hotels
40 000 tents given out
Italian Red Cross searching for survivors

20

Name 2 long term responses of the L’Aquila earthquake

No taxes paid in 2010
Students given free transport

21

Explain why earthquakes cause more damage in poor countries

Communication systems may be poor so population don’t know what to do in an earthquake

Construction standards are poorer

Not enough money to clean up and rebuild

22

Why do people continue to live in areas at risk of Tectonic hazards

Fertile land for farming from ash

Minerals for mining

Geothermal power

Fresh water at fault lines so poorer communities live there

Tourism brings income

23

How does monitoring reduce the affects of Tectonic hazards

Networks of seismometers and lasers moniter earths movements so can alert of an event

24

How does planning reduce the affects of Tectonic hazards

Emergency supplies can be put aside

Plan evacuation routes

Emergency services

25

How does prediction reduce the affects of Tectonic hazards

By monitoring movement can forcast when earthquakes take place

By well monitoring volcanoes Can evacuate areas

26

How does protection reduce the affects of Tectonic hazards

Buildings can be built to withstand earthquakes by using reinforced concrete

Automatic shut off switches can cut off gas and electricity to prevent fires