Flashcards in weather hazrads and climate change Deck (38):
what is the global atmospheric circulation model?
large scale movement of air by which heat is distributed on the surface of the earth
explain the global atmospheric circulation model!
Hadley Cell: Largest cell which extends from the equator to between 30* to 40* north and south.
Ferrel Cell: middle cell where air flows poleward between 60* and 70* latitude
Polar Cell: smallest and weakest cells that occurs from the poles to the ferrel cell.
whats the weather like at the equator in tropical rainforests? what cell does this fall into?
at equator air is rising so forms low pressure
this means its hot and wet at the equator because the low pressure means cloud and rain
and the winds move towards low pressure.
whats the weather like 30* N & S of the equator (desert) what cell does it fall into?
at 30* north and south the air is sinking so high pressure
sinking air is dry, little clouds and rainfall.
hot in day cold at night.
whats the uk weather like at 30*-60* North?
what cell does this fall into?
rising air so low pressure
boundary is unstable so air rises, condenses and forms cloud and rain.
making it wet and windy in the uk
whats the weather like between 60*-90* N and S?
what cell does this fall into?
sinking air so high pressure
skies are clear and dry weather although cold
describe the distribution of tropical storms
form over warm oceans above 27*
5*-15* north and south of the equator. this is where intense heat causes air to rise rapidly and the unstable conditions can cause tropical storms
what is the cause of a tropical storm
sea 27* or higher
warm air above the sea rises and evaporates
when the evaporated air cools forms towering thunder clouds
as the air condenses it releases heat which powers storm and draws up more water.
rising air creates low pressure so wind rushes to eye
all thunder storms join and goes across se getting stronger and stronger until hits land
tropical storm case study?
primary effects of Typhoon Haiyan?
6300 people killed
40,000 homes damaged
secondary effects of Typhoon Haiyan?
looting in tacloban
ferry services distrupted
when was typhoon haiyan
name short term responses to typhoon haiyan
uk gov sent shelter kits
USA and Uk sent helicopters, ships delivered aid to remote areas
name long term responses to typhoon haiyan
education on preparing for typhoons
in gave 120m aid
how are tropical storms affected by global warming
storms are likely to affect a larger area as seas get hotter- hurricane catrina was first recorded in that area
the intensity will increase looking back at records
what does protection for tropical storms involve?
construction products that provide protection
what does planning for tropical storms involve?
getting people ready to deal with impacts and emergency services.
what is the case study of extreme weather in uk
what was the cause of the somerset levels?
wetest jan on record and rivers had not been dredged in 20 years so became clogged with sediment
name a social Impact due to the somerset levels
residents evacuated to temp accommodation for several months
name 2 economic Impacts due to the somerset levels
somerset county council estimated cost to be £10 million
14000 hectars of land of agricultural land under water for a month
name enviromental Impacts due to the somerset levels
floodwaters contaminated with sewage and other chemicals
give a uk example on how weather is becoming more extreme
between nov-dec 2010 uk had a long period of heavy snow
name 3 management strategies to reduce risk from weather hazards
warning systems give people time to evacuate
prepare emergency services
get individuals to prepare
give three pieces of evidence for climate change
global temps have increased by more than 0.6*C
many of the worlds glaciers and ice sheets are melting- the artic sea ice has declined by 10% in 30 years
global sea level has increased by 10-20cms in 30years due to additional water.
give examples of natural causes of climate change
volcanic activity-greenhouse gases capyure heat
solar output from sun
orbital changes-how close we are to the sun
give example of human causes of climate change
by burning fossil fuels we are releasing more co2 into the atmosphere and adding to the natural greenhouse gases- greenhouse effect
farming livestock produces lots of meathane-greenhouse gases and rice patties
cutting down trees means that less co2 is absorbed from the atmosphere
production of cement which contains carbon produces c02
name economic impacts of of climate change
agriculture- farming areas loose lot of money because crops don't grow
tourists don't visit areas
name social impacts of of climate change
urban and rural poor rely on surroundings to survive and can cause them to be forced out of areas.
spread of disease
lower crop yield
name environmental impacts of climate change
sea ice shrinking so loss of polar habitats
precipitation patterns lead to drought in areas that normally wouldn't have it
rising sea levels mean low lying land like Maldives will be flooded regualay
costal ersosion increase so habitats lost
coral reefs suffering from bleaching due to increasing sea temps
what do mitigation stratigies aim to do?
reduce causes of climate change
name 4 stratagies which could help reduce climate change
alternative energy production
how does planting trees help reduce climate change?
increases the amount of co2 absorbed
how does carbon capture help reduce climate change?
reduces emmissions from fossil fuel burning power stations by capturing co2 and transporting it to places where it can be stored safely
how does alternative energy production
help reduce climate change?
replacing fossil fuels with nuclear power and renewable energy like wind farms
how do international agreements help reduce climate change?
countries work together to moniter climate change
what does adaptation mean in climate change?
responding to climate change by making changes