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Flashcards in weather hazrads and climate change Deck (38):

what is the global atmospheric circulation model?

large scale movement of air by which heat is distributed on the surface of the earth


explain the global atmospheric circulation model!

Hadley Cell: Largest cell which extends from the equator to between 30* to 40* north and south.

Ferrel Cell: middle cell where air flows poleward between 60* and 70* latitude

Polar Cell: smallest and weakest cells that occurs from the poles to the ferrel cell.


whats the weather like at the equator in tropical rainforests? what cell does this fall into?

Hadley cell:
at equator air is rising so forms low pressure
this means its hot and wet at the equator because the low pressure means cloud and rain
and the winds move towards low pressure.


whats the weather like 30* N & S of the equator (desert) what cell does it fall into?

Hadley Cell:
at 30* north and south the air is sinking so high pressure
sinking air is dry, little clouds and rainfall.
hot in day cold at night.


whats the uk weather like at 30*-60* North?
what cell does this fall into?

Ferrel cell:
rising air so low pressure
boundary is unstable so air rises, condenses and forms cloud and rain.
making it wet and windy in the uk


whats the weather like between 60*-90* N and S?
what cell does this fall into?

polar cell:
sinking air so high pressure
skies are clear and dry weather although cold


describe the distribution of tropical storms

form over warm oceans above 27*
5*-15* north and south of the equator. this is where intense heat causes air to rise rapidly and the unstable conditions can cause tropical storms


what is the cause of a tropical storm

sea 27* or higher
warm air above the sea rises and evaporates
when the evaporated air cools forms towering thunder clouds
as the air condenses it releases heat which powers storm and draws up more water.
rising air creates low pressure so wind rushes to eye
all thunder storms join and goes across se getting stronger and stronger until hits land


tropical storm case study?

Typhoon Haiyan


primary effects of Typhoon Haiyan?

6300 people killed
6000,000 homeless
40,000 homes damaged


secondary effects of Typhoon Haiyan?

looting in tacloban
jobs lost
ferry services distrupted


when was typhoon haiyan



name short term responses to typhoon haiyan

uk gov sent shelter kits
USA and Uk sent helicopters, ships delivered aid to remote areas


name long term responses to typhoon haiyan

education on preparing for typhoons
in gave 120m aid


how are tropical storms affected by global warming

storms are likely to affect a larger area as seas get hotter- hurricane catrina was first recorded in that area

the intensity will increase looking back at records


what does protection for tropical storms involve?

construction products that provide protection


what does planning for tropical storms involve?

getting people ready to deal with impacts and emergency services.


what is the case study of extreme weather in uk

somerset levels


what was the cause of the somerset levels?

wetest jan on record and rivers had not been dredged in 20 years so became clogged with sediment


name a social Impact due to the somerset levels

residents evacuated to temp accommodation for several months


name 2 economic Impacts due to the somerset levels

somerset county council estimated cost to be £10 million
14000 hectars of land of agricultural land under water for a month


name enviromental Impacts due to the somerset levels

floodwaters contaminated with sewage and other chemicals
habitats damaged


give a uk example on how weather is becoming more extreme

between nov-dec 2010 uk had a long period of heavy snow


name 3 management strategies to reduce risk from weather hazards

warning systems give people time to evacuate
prepare emergency services
get individuals to prepare


give three pieces of evidence for climate change

global temps have increased by more than 0.6*C

many of the worlds glaciers and ice sheets are melting- the artic sea ice has declined by 10% in 30 years

global sea level has increased by 10-20cms in 30years due to additional water.


give examples of natural causes of climate change

volcanic activity-greenhouse gases capyure heat
solar output from sun
orbital changes-how close we are to the sun


give example of human causes of climate change

by burning fossil fuels we are releasing more co2 into the atmosphere and adding to the natural greenhouse gases- greenhouse effect

farming livestock produces lots of meathane-greenhouse gases and rice patties

cutting down trees means that less co2 is absorbed from the atmosphere

production of cement which contains carbon produces c02


name economic impacts of of climate change

agriculture- farming areas loose lot of money because crops don't grow
tourists don't visit areas


name social impacts of of climate change

urban and rural poor rely on surroundings to survive and can cause them to be forced out of areas.

spread of disease
death increased
lower crop yield


name environmental impacts of climate change

biggest impact:
sea ice shrinking so loss of polar habitats
precipitation patterns lead to drought in areas that normally wouldn't have it
rising sea levels mean low lying land like Maldives will be flooded regualay
costal ersosion increase so habitats lost
coral reefs suffering from bleaching due to increasing sea temps


what do mitigation stratigies aim to do?

reduce causes of climate change


name 4 stratagies which could help reduce climate change

planting tree
alternative energy production
carbon capture
international agreements


how does planting trees help reduce climate change?

increases the amount of co2 absorbed


how does carbon capture help reduce climate change?

reduces emmissions from fossil fuel burning power stations by capturing co2 and transporting it to places where it can be stored safely


how does alternative energy production
help reduce climate change?

replacing fossil fuels with nuclear power and renewable energy like wind farms


how do international agreements help reduce climate change?

countries work together to moniter climate change


what does adaptation mean in climate change?

responding to climate change by making changes


give 3 examples of adapting to climate change

changing agricultural systems
managing water supply
coping with rising sea levels