Flashcards in Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Deck (16):
The most commonly cited criteria include persistent vomiting not related to other causes, a measure of acute starvation (usually large ketonuria), and some discrete measure of weight loss, most often at least 5% of prepregnancy weight
ketones in urine
weight loss at least 5%
Although biochemical hyperthyroidism may be seen with hyperemesis gravidarum, a palpable goiter is not due to nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. If a goiter is present, primary thyroid disease should be suspected.
normal t4, t3
low t3, lowt4
normal t3, normal t4
low tsh high/normal t3, t4
rare pituitary hypothyroidism
low /normal t3, t4
hCG arising from the placenta has been considered a likely candidate for the emetogenic stimulus. The role of hCG also is suggested by the fact that almost all studies of thyroid hormones in pregnancy show an association between transient hyperthyroidism and nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.
hcg --> transient hyperthyroidism
Another hormone known to influence nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is estrogen.
Cigarette smoking is associated with lower levels of hCG and estradiol (24), and numerous studies have shown that smokers are less likely to have hyperemesis gravidarum. Estrogen in the combined oral contraceptive pill was shown to induce nausea and vomiting in a dose-related fashion (25). Women with nausea and vomiting after estrogen exposure were more likely to have nausea and vomiting of pregnancy than women who did not demonstrate such sensitivity to estrogen
It also has been posited that nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is an evolutionary adaptation that developed to protect the woman and her fetus from foods that might be potentially dangerous
evolutionary adaptation that developed to protect woman and her fetus from foods that might be potentially dangerous
Women with increased placental mass (eg, advanced molar gestation or multiple gestation) are at increased risk of hyperemesis gravidarum
increased placental mass or advanced molar gestation, or multiple gestation are at increased risk of hyperemsis gravidarum
Daughters and sisters of women who had hyperemesis gravidarum are more likely to have the same problem, as are women carrying female fetuses
Wernicke encephalopathy (caused by ___deficiency) related to hyperemesis gravidarum has been associated with maternal death or permanent neurologic disability (
vitamin b1 deficiency
ginger capsules 250mg 4 times daily
reducing nausea and vomiting