Flashcards in Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy Deck (33):
The most common site of ectopic pregnancy is the
The fallopian tube is the most common location of ectopic implantation, accounting for more than 90% of cases (4). However, implantation in the
abdomen (1%), cervix (1%), ovary (1–3%), and cesarean scar (1–3%) can occur and often results in greater morbidity because of delayed diagnosis and treatment
An ectopic pregnancy also can co-occur with an intrauterine pregnancy, a condition known as ____. The risk of heterotopic pregnancy among women with a naturally achieved pregnancy is estimated to
range from 1 in 4,000 to 1 in 30,000, whereas the risk among women who have undergone in vitro fertilization is estimated to be as high as 1 in 100
The chance of a repeat ectopic pregnancy in a woman with a history of one ectopic pregnancy is approximately
In a woman with two or more prior ectopic pregnancies, the risk of recurrence increases to
more than 25%
However, up to 53% of pregnancies that occur with an IUD in place are ectopic
Serial evaluation with transvaginal ultrasonography, or serum hCG level measurement, or both, often is required to confirm the diagnosis.
Women with clinical signs and physical symptoms of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy, such as hemodynamic instability or an acute abdomen, should be evaluated and treated urgently.
. Every sexually active, reproductive-aged woman who presents with abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding should be screened for pregnancy, regardless of whether she is currently using contraception
abdominal pain OR
should be screened for pregnancy, regardless of whether she is currently using contraception
Ultrasonography can definitively diagnose an ectopic pregnancy when a gestational sac with a yolk sac, or embryo, or both, is noted in the adnexa (15, 16); however, most ectopic pregnancies do not progress to this stage
Although a hypoechoic “sac-like” structure (including a “double sac sign”) (18) in the uterus likely represents an intrauterine gestation, it also may represent a pseudogestational sac, which is a collection of fluid or blood in the uterine cavity that is sometimes visualized with ultrasonography in women with an ectopic pregnancy
An intrauterine gestational sac with a yolk sac should be visible between 5 weeks and 6 weeks of gestation regardless of whether there are one or multiple gestations (25, 26). In the absence of such definitive information, the serum hCG level can be used as a surrogate for gestational age to help interpret a nondiagnostic ultrasonogram.
The absence of a possible gestational sac on ultrasound examination in the presence of a hCG measurement above the discriminatory level strongly suggests a nonviable gestation (an early pregnancy loss or an ectopic pregnancy). I
discriminatory zone: 1500-2000
If the concept of the hCG discriminatory level is to be used as a diagnostic aid in women at risk of ectopic pregnancy, the value should be conservatively high (eg, as high as 3,500 mIU/mL) to avoid the potential for misdiagnosis and possible interruption of an intrauterine pregnancy that a woman hopes to continue
A single hCG concentration measurement cannot diagnose viability or location of a gestation. Serial hCG concentration measurements are used to differentiate normal from abnormal pregnancies (21, 22, 33, 34). When clinical findings suggest an abnormal gestation, a second hCG value measurement is recommended 2 days after the initial measurement to assess for an increase or decrease. Subsequent assessments of hCG concentration should be obtained 2–7 days apart, depending on the pattern and the level of change.
hcg must be measured q 2 days
subsequent assessments of HCG should be 2-7 days apart
In early pregnancy, serum hCG levels increase in a curvilinear fashion until a plateau at 100,000 mIU/mL by 10 weeks of gestation.
plateaus at 100,000
by 10th week of pregnancy.
Decreasing hCG values suggest a failing pregnancy and may be used to monitor spontaneous resolution, but this decrease should not be considered diagnostic. Approximately 95% of women with a spontaneous early pregnancy loss will have a decrease in hCG concentration of 21–35% in 2 days depending on initial hCG levels (34). A woman with decreasing hCG values and a possible ectopic pregnancy should be monitored until nonpregnant levels are reached because rupture of an ectopic pregnancy can occur while levels are decreasing or are very low.
When the possibility of a progressing intrauterine gestation has been reasonably excluded, uterine aspiration can help to distinguish early intrauterine pregnancy loss from ectopic pregnancy by identifying the presence or absence of intrauterine chorionic villi.
. Large decreases in hCG levels are more consistent with failed intrauterine pregnancy than ectopic pregnancy. In two small series of women undergoing uterine aspiration for pregnancy of unknown location, nearly all women with a decrease in hCG levels of 50% or greater within 12–24 hours after aspiration had failed intrauterine pregnancies
decrease in hcg of 50% or greater within 12-24 hours of aspiration
close follow-up with serial hCG measurement, with consideration of treatment for ectopic pregnancy based on clinical factors such as plateau or increase in hCG, development of symptoms, or high clinical suspicion or strong risk factors for ectopic pregnancy (29, 40, 41).
The choice of performing a uterine aspiration before treatment with methotrexate should be guided by a discussion with the patient regarding the benefits and risks, including the risk of teratogenicity in the case of an ongoing intrauterine pregnancy and exposure to methotrexate.
Methotrexate is a folate antagonist that binds to the catalytic site of dihydrofolate reductase, which interrupts the synthesis of purine nucleotides and the amino acids serine and methionine, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis and repair and cell replication.
In addition, methotrexate administration should be avoided in patients with clinically significant elevations in serum creatinine, liver transaminases, or bone marrow dysfunction indicated by significant anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia.
- significant elevations in serum creatinine
-bone marrow dysfunction indicated by ( severe anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia)
a high initial hCG level is considered a relative contraindication. Systematic review evidence shows a failure rate of 14.3% or higher with methotrexate when pretreatment hCG levels are higher than 5,000 mIU/mL compared with a 3.7% failure rate for hCG levels less than 5,000 mIU/mL
failure rate of 14% if hcg >5,000
Because methotrexate affects rapidly dividing tissues, gastrointestinal problems (eg, nausea, vomiting, and stomatitis) are the most common adverse effects after multiple doses. Vaginal spotting is expected. It is not unusual for women treated with methotrexate to experience abdominal pain 2–3 days after administration, presumably from the cytotoxic effect of the drug on the trophoblastic tissue. In the absence of signs and symptoms of overt tubal rupture and significant hemoperitoneum, abdominal pain usually can be managed expectantly by monitoring a woman’s hemoglobin level and intraperitoneal fluid amount with transvaginal ultrasonography.
atients should be advised to avoid folic acid supplements, foods that contain folic acid, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs during therapy because these products may decrease the efficacy of methotrexate.
-foods with folic acid
should be avoided because may decrease efficacy of methotrexate
__ also should be avoided during treatment to limit the risk of methotrexate dermatitis
The product labeling approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends that women avoid pregnancy during treatment and for at least one ovulatory cycle after methotrexate therapy
recommended that women delay pregnancy for at least 3 months after last dose of methotrexate
Surgical management of ectopic pregnancy is required when a patient is exhibiting any of the following: hemodynamic instability, symptoms of an ongoing ruptured ectopic mass (such as pelvic pain), or signs of intraperitoneal bleeding.
symptoms of ongoin ruptured ectopic mass (pelvic pain)
or intraperitoneal bleeding
Surgical management generally is performed using laparoscopic salpingectomy (removal of part or all of the affected fallopian tube) or laparoscopic salpingostomy
Surgical management of
ectopic pregnancy is required when a patient is exhibiting any of the following: hemodynamic instability, symptoms of an ongoing ruptured ectopic mass (such as pelvic pain), or signs of intraperitoneal bleeding.
If the concept of the hCG discriminatory level is to be used as a diagnostic aid in women at risk of ectopic pregnancy, the value should be conservatively high (eg, as high as 3,500 mIU/mL) to avoid the potential for misdiagnosis and possible interruption of an intrauterine pregnancy that a woman hopes to continue.