Navigation Flashcards Preview

Navigation > Navigation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Navigation Deck (57)
Loading flashcards...
1

Air Navigation definition

determine geographic position and maintain desired direction of an aircraft relative to the surface of the earth

2

position

geographic point defined by coordinates

3

latitude

angular distance north or south of the equator
0= equator
0-90 degrees
curved on Lambert conformal chart.
latitude is measured along meridian

4

longitude

angular distance east or west of prime meridian
0 = meridian, 180 = international date line.
straight lines on Lambert conformal chart
longitude is measured along parallel lines

5

how many minutes in a degree

60 minutes in a degree

6

dead reckoning

directing an aircraft and determining its position by the application of direction and speed data from a previous position

7

dead reckoning components

PTSD
position, time, speed, direction

8

direction

angular distance from a reference. measured 001-360 degrees

9

primary instrument for determining direction

BDHI - bearing distance heading indicator (remote gyro vertical compass)

ring laser gyro highly accurate without lag

10

secondary or backup direction measurment instrument

stand by compass

wet compass, reliable (does not require eletricity) but is unstable during maneuvers

11

Time

00+00
00+00+00

00:00
00:00:00

12

ETE estimated time en route

expressed in hours : minutes
or hr + min

13

speed

distance / time

14

three primary instruments for dead reckoning

BDHI (direction and position)
clock (time)
airspeed indicator (IAS)

15

two secondary instruments

altimeter
outside air temp - OAT

16

what variables are used to convert IAS into TAS

altimeter and outside air temp

17

visual navigation

navigation by ground references (bld, river)

18

electronic navigation - and its 3 categories

use of electronic devices to determine position

1) receive signals from EXTERNAL SOURCES
GROUND STATIONS - VOR, TACAN
SPACE - GPS
2) IN BOARD signals - RADAR, DOPPLER

3) self contained - INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM (INS)
-requires pilot input of starting location

19

Type of electronic navigation which recieves input from space

GPS

20

Great Circle

circle formed by continuing arc inscribed by connecting the shortest distance between two points on a sphere.

circle which plane passes through the center of the earth

EX: every longitude, and the equator

21

Lambart conformal projections

conic projections

parallels - equally spaced concentric circles
meridians - straight lines converging at poles
great circle - plot as straight line
scale is constant

22

Operational Navigation Chart (ONC) - scale and properties

1:1,000,000
less detail, larger area
world wide coverage

23

Tactical Pilotage Chart (TPC) - scale and properties

1:500,000
more detail, smaller area
world wide coverage

24

Course

aircrafts INTENDED flight path

25

Heading

angular distance of the aircraft's longitudinal axis from reference (TN or MN).

where HEAD of aircraft is pointing

26

Track

aircrafts actual flight path over the ground

27

variation

angular difference between true north and magnetic north

28

isogonic line

connects points of equal variation

29

East is Least, Best is West

MC = TC - East variation
MC = TC + West variation

30

degrees in 1 hr (time zone)

15 degrees / hr
1 hr = 15 degrees
(360 degrees / 24hr)

31

Divider

measuring distance on a chart

32

plotter

combination protractor and straightedge. used ot aid in drawing course lines and measuring direction

33

when measuring distance, how long is 1 minute latitude?

1 NM = 1 min lat

34

LA GS

when solving for pressure altitude, if measured pressure is less than standard (29.92) then add. if greater than standard subtract.

35

nautical mile

one minute of arc measured along any great circle

36

vector

possesses both direction and magnitude

37

air vector

the aircraft's direction and speed represented by True Heading (TH) and True Airspeed (TAS)

38

ground vector

the aircraft's intended or actual flight path (True Course or Track) and Ground Speed (GS)

39

wind vector

winds direction TRUE (DIR) and Velocity (VEL)

40

Drift angle

the difference between true heading and track

41

crab angle

the amount of correction an aircraft must be turned into the wind in order to maintain the desired course.

42

absolute altitude

actual height of aircraft above the surface of the earth (AKA AGL)

43

Pressure altitude

CALIBRATED altitude corrected for difference between local atm P and standard 29.92
(LA GS)

44

indicated altitude

reading on the aircraft altimeter when set to the local area barometric

45

calibrated altitude

altitude corrected for instrument and installation error

46

True altitude

actual height of the aircraft above MSL. Found by correcting calibrated altitude (CA) for density.

47

temperature variation causes how much altimeter error?

11 C temperature change from standard causes 4% altimeter error

48

Indicated airspeed

IAS - airspeed read directly from the aircraft airspeed indicator

49

calibrated airspeed

Indicated airspeed corrected for instrument installation error.

50

True airspeed

TAS is calibrated airpseed corrected for air denisty. Speed of aircraft through the air mass

51

ground speed

actual speed of the aircraft relative to the ground. TAS corrected for head wind/tail wind.

52

Gyro vertical compass card aka BDHI
-what is the point of the second needle represent?

MAGNETIC bearing to the TACAN in radials

53

Gyro vertical compass card aka BDHI
-what is the tail of the second needle represent?

Current radial (i.e. radial from the station to aircraft)

54

Gyro vertical compass card aka BDHI
-what does the top of the dial on a BDHI represent?

heading (where the nose of the aircraft is pointed)

55

Gyro vertical compass card aka BDHI
-what is the DME?

technically the slant range, however we consider it the horizontal distance from the aircraft to the TACAN

56

Jet log primary purpose

Fuel management

57

course control vs turn point navigation

course control: adjust route to stay on track multiple times.

turn point: once off track, make single correction to return to a single point on track