What are causes of jaundice in the 1st 24hrs?
TORCH - congenital infection
What are causes of jaundice from the 2nd day-3rd wk?
Physiological (gone after 1st wk) Breast milk Sepsis Polycythemia Cephalhaematoma Crigler-Najjar syndrome Haemolytic disorders
What are causes of jaundice after the 3rd wk?
What is the treatment for jaundice?
Treat underlying cause Hydrate Phototherapy Exchange transfusion Immunoglobin
What % of normal term neonates get erythema toxicum?
What is erythema toxicum is?
What happens usually to erythema toxicum?
Fade by end 1st wk
What are Mongolian blue spots?
Accumulation of melanocytes
When do Mongolian blue spots usually present?
Lower back and buttocks
What happens to Mongolian blue spots?
Normally disappears three to five years after birth
What are stork marks?
Light colour capillary dilatation
Where are stork marks normally found?
Back of neck
Midline of face
What happens to stork marks?
Disappear within 1st 2yrs
What are examples of capillary vascular malformations?
Port wine stain
What is port wine stain?
Present at birth, flat or slightly raised
Caused by dilated, mature capillaries in the superficial dermis
Do port wine stains go away?
Do not regress
What is an example of a capillary haemangioma?
What is strawberry naevus?
Cluster of dilated capillaries which appears within first month after birth
Raised and bright red, with discrete edges, any part of body
What happens to strawberry naevus?
Usually regresss after one yr
What babies are at risk of limited glucose supply?
What babies are at risk of hyperinsulinism?
Infants of diabetic mothers
What babies are at risk of increased glucose use?
What is the definition of hypoglycaemia in babies?
<2.0mmol/l blood sugar
When can bedside testing for hypoglycaemia be inaccurate?
At low/high levels
When poor perfusion
What are symptoms of hypoglycaemia in babies?
Jitteriness Temperature instability Lethargy Hypotonia Apnoea, irregular respirations Poor suck/feeding Vomiting High pitched or weak cry Seizures Asymptomatic
What ways can babies become hypothermic?
Evaporation (wet skin)
Conduction (cold towels)
Convection (open windows)
Radiation (cold objects nearby)
What is the management of babies with hypothermia?
Dry quickly Remove wet linens Use warm blankets Provide radiant warmer heat Use heated/humidified oxygen
What is tongue ties?
Short +/- thickened frenulum
Attached anteriorly -> base of tongue