Neoplasia 1 Flashcards Preview

Respiratory > Neoplasia 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neoplasia 1 Deck (42)
1

What is cancer?

A common word for malignant lesions

2

What is a tumour?

A neoplastic lesion - benign or malignant

3

What is oncology?

The study of neoplastic lesions

4

What is neoplasia?

excessive and unregulated cell proliferation

5

Why does neoplasia occur?

Due to a genetic mutation that affects cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair

6

What are the two types of neoplasia?

Benign and malignant

7

What are the features of a benign tumour?

Slow growth, well circumscribed, may be encapsulated, well differentiated cells, unable to metastasise, rarely life threatening

8

What are the features of a malignant tumour?

Invasive and destructive growth locally, poorly circumscribed, frequently induce desmoplasia, may have necrosis, cells are variably differentiated from well differentiated to anaplastic, potential to metastasise

9

What is desmoplasia?

Where the tumour releases cytokines and growth factors which induce fibroblasts to proliferate and produce extracellular matrix in the stroma which the tumour invades

10

What are anaplastic cells?

Cells which cannot be determined if they are differentiated

11

How do tumours metastasise?

Via the lymphatics, via the blood (haematogenous) or along pleural space (transcoelomic)

12

What are some common sites of metastases?

Liver, brain, lungs, bone - although it is different for different cancers

13

What feature do metastases from melanoma have?

They are pigmented

14

How colour are tumours macroscopically?

Pale - often with paler areas within if there is necrosis

15

What may peritoneal metastases present with clinically?

Abdominal swelling due to fluid production

16

What is lymphangitis carcinomatosis?

Liv - there was no answer in Evernote

17

What do neoplastic cells demonstrate histologically?

cytological atypia and architectural disorganisation

18

What is cytological atypia?

larger nuclei, pleomorphic nuclei, coarse nuclear chromatin, hyper chromatic nuclei, larger more prominent nucleoli, more mitotic activity

19

What is architectural disorganisation?

Cells are more crowded and less organised

20

What other features may be seen in neoplasia histologically?

desmoplasia, chronic inflammatory cells, pyknosis and karryolysis

21

What phenotype do tumour cells usually show?

One that resembles their normal counterparts

22

What features do tumour cells with glandular cell lineage show?

formation of glandular lumen, signet ring cells, formation of mucin

23

What features do tumour cells with squamous cell lineage show?

keratinisation (whirls in the middle of the tumour), eosinophilic cytoplasm, intercellular bridges

24

What features do tumour cells with smooth muscle lineage show?

elongated nuclei with rounded ends, elongated cells

25

What does the prefix in the name of the tumour mean?

Its cell lineage

26

What type of tumour is an adeno-?

Glandular

27

What type of tumour is a leiomyo-?

smooth muscle

28

What type of tumour is an osteo-?

osteoblastic

29

What does the suffix in the name of the tumour mean?

Whether it is benign of malignant, and if malignant whether it is mesenchymal or epithelial

30

What does the suffix -oma mean?

Benign

31

What does the suffix carcinoma mean?

It is a malignant epithelial tumour

32

What does the suffix sarcoma mean/

It is a malignant mesenchymal tumour

33

What are some exceptions to the naming terminology?

seminoma (malignant testicular), lymphoma (malignant lymphocytes)

34

What is the degree of differentiation?

The extent to which the tumour cells resemble their normal counterparts - differentiation in malignant tumours is referred to as grade

35

Why is the tumour microenvironment important?

For establishment and growth of metastases

36

How do genetic alterations which lead to neoplasia arise?

carcinogenic agents (microbes, radiation, chemicals), inherited, mistakes in normal replication, sustained cell proliferation from any cause

37

What are premalignant lesions?

Cells that are not yet malignant but there is a reasonable chance of them becoming malignant

38

What else are premalignant lesions called?

dysplasia and intraepithelial neoplasia

39

How are intraepithelial neoplasias graded?

mild, moderate or severe where severe is an in situ carcinoma

40

What is an in situ carcinoma?

A severe dysplasia where cells look malignant but haven’t yet invaded past the basement membrane into the stroma

41

How do dysplasias get past the basement membrane?

With enzymes such as metalloprotinases

42

What is a polyp?

A glandular dysplastic lesion