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Flashcards in Upper Respiratory Tract Infections Deck (20)
1

At what point does the respiratory tract become sterile?

Below the epiglottis

2

Are there more aerobic or anaerobic microbiota in the upper respiratory tract?

Anaerobic

3

What are the most common pathogens in the upper respiratory tract?

viridans streptococci, neisseria spp., corynebacterium spp., gram negative anaerobes, H. influenzae, C. albicans, strept. pneumoniae

4

What does viridans streptococci cause?

Plaque by producing acid that wears away teeth - if it becomes a significant pathogen it may cause infective endocarditis

5

What are occasional pathogens of the upper respiratory tract?

strep. pyogenes, meningococci

6

What are uncommon pathogens of the upper respiratory tract?

enterobacteria, pseudomonas, C. diptheria

7

What pathogens are latent in the lung?

P. jirovecii and M. tuberculosis

8

What pathogens are latent in lymph nodes and sensory nerves?

CMV, HSV, EBV

9

What are the frequent aetiological agents of the common cold?

rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, RSV, enterovirus, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus

10

What are the frequent aetiological agents of pharyngitis/tonsilitis?

adenovirus, enterovirus, infleunza

11

What are the aetiological agents of pharyngitis/tonsilitis without nasal involvement?

Either the same viruses which cause tonsillitis with nasal involvement or in about 1/5 times strept. pyogenes - requires early antibiotic treatment

12

What is secondary sinusitis?

Where pathogens take advantage of damaged epithelium due to viral infection and get infected by bacteria e.g. h.influenzae or strept. pneumoniae

13

What are the frequent aetiological agents of otitis media?

pneumococci, h. infleunzae, m. catarrhalis

14

What is the frequent aetiological agent of epiglottitis?

h. influenzae type b - can be immunised against

15

What are the frequent aetiological agents of croup?

parainfluenza virus, influenza A, RSV

16

What is the pathogenesis of the common cold?

Viruses have an affinity for respiratory epithelium, gets in and damages epithelial cells which causes the early symptoms of a runny nose with clear fluid, this is followed by an inflammatory response. Bacterial commensals then take advantage of damaged epithelium and infect - this si when fluid becomes more purulent.

17

Why is otitis media more common in children?

Because children have a wider and shorter eustacion tube which allows organisms to go from pharynx to middle ear

18

When is a laboratory diagnosis done for an URTI?

For tonsillitis and epiglotitis

19

What kind of laboratory diagnosis is done for epiglottitis?

Blood culture

20

When is specific treatment of URTI done?

If the cause is bacterial - for tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis media and definitely for epiglottitis