Flashcards in Neoplasia 4 Deck (65)
What are the most common cancers? (4)
What proportion of cancer do breast, lung, prostate and bowel carcinomas account for?
Over half of all cancers
Why are carcinomas more common than other types of cancers?
Epithelia is a labile tissue
epithelial cells proliferate a lot
more opportunity to accumulate mutations
Cancer is most common in what age range?
Cancers in children younger than 14 tend to be...? (3)
How is the aggression of cancer measured?
By looking at 5 year survival rates
proportion of people with the cancer that are still alive after 5 years
What are some examples of cancers that have a high 5 year survival rate? (4)
What are some examples of cancers that have low 5 year survival rates?
Which cancer gives the biggest number of deaths?
Lung - high incidence and aggressive
Which cancer gives a low number of deaths?
Stomach - aggressive but low incidence
What factors are considered when predicting the outcome of cancer?
General health status
Availability of effective treatments
What is tumour stage?
Measure of neoplasm's overall burden, including
-how far it's spread
What is the commonest method for assessing stage of tumour?
TNM staging system
What does TNM stand for?
T - size of tumour
N - regional node metastasis
M - distant metastatic spread
What are the ranges of T?
T1 - T4
tumour gets bigger from T1 -----> T4
What are the ranges of N?
N0 - N3
no regional node metases in N0
more regional node metastases from N0 -----> N3
What are the ranges of M?
M0 - M1
no distant metastases in M0, but are in M1
How does the TNM system give us the stage of the tumour? What does each stage mean?
T1, T2 = stage 1 - early local cancer
T3, T4 = stage 2 - locally advanced
N1, N2, N3 = stage 3 - regional metastasis
M1 = stage 4 - distant metastasis
What are two examples of cancers that have their own unique staging system?
What is the unique staging system for lymphoma?
Ann Arbor system
What is the Ann Arbor staging system for lymphoma?
Stage 1 - lymphoma in a single node region
Stage 2 - lymphoma in two separate regions, one side of diaphragm
Stage 3 - lymphoma in two separate regions, both sides of diaphragm
Stage 4 - involvement of extra-lymphatic organ e.g. bone marrow
What is the unique staging system for colorectal cancer?
Dukes staging system
What is the Dukes staging system for colorectal cancer?
Stage A - invasion into but not through bowel wall
Stage B - invasion through bowel wall
Stage C - involvement of lymph nodes
Stage D - distant metastases
How does the stage of a cancer relate to the outcome?
Stage correlates with outcome
higher stage means poorer outcome - more deaths, earlier on
What is the difference between regional and distal metastases?
Local involves lymphatics only
Distant also involves blood circulation
What is the grade of a tumour based on?
The degree of differentiation of the neoplasm
What are the different grades of a tumour? What do they each mean?
G1 - well-differentiated
G2 - moderately differentiated
G3 - poorly differentiated
G4 - undifferentiated, anaplastic - doesn't resemble any tissue
Which cancers is the G1 - G4 grading system used for?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Which type of cancer has its own unique grading system? What is the grading system called?