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Flashcards in Neoplasia 4 Deck (65)
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1

What are the most common cancers? (4)

Breast carcinoma

Lung carcinoma

Prostate carcinoma

Bowel carcinoma

2

What proportion of cancer do breast, lung, prostate and bowel carcinomas account for?

Over half of all cancers

3

Why are carcinomas more common than other types of cancers?

Epithelia is a labile tissue
epithelial cells proliferate a lot
more opportunity to accumulate mutations

4

Cancer is most common in what age range?

65+ years

5

Cancers in children younger than 14 tend to be...? (3)

Leukaemias
Lymphomas

CNS tumours

6

How is the aggression of cancer measured?

By looking at 5 year survival rates
proportion of people with the cancer that are still alive after 5 years

7

What are some examples of cancers that have a high 5 year survival rate? (4)

Testicular

Prostate

Breast

Malignant melanoma

8

What are some examples of cancers that have low 5 year survival rates?

Brain

Lung

Stomach

Oesophagus

Pancreas

9

Which cancer gives the biggest number of deaths?

Lung - high incidence and aggressive

10

Which cancer gives a low number of deaths?

Stomach - aggressive but low incidence

11

What factors are considered when predicting the outcome of cancer?

Age
General health status

Tumour site
Tumour type

Tumour grade
Tumour stage

Availability of effective treatments

12

What is tumour stage?

Measure of neoplasm's overall burden, including
-size
-how far it's spread

13

What is the commonest method for assessing stage of tumour?

TNM staging system

14

What does TNM stand for?

T - size of tumour

N - regional node metastasis

M - distant metastatic spread

15

What are the ranges of T?

T1 - T4
tumour gets bigger from T1 -----> T4

16

What are the ranges of N?

N0 - N3
no regional node metases in N0
more regional node metastases from N0 -----> N3

17

What are the ranges of M?

M0 - M1
no distant metastases in M0, but are in M1

18

How does the TNM system give us the stage of the tumour? What does each stage mean?

T1, T2 = stage 1 - early local cancer

T3, T4 = stage 2 - locally advanced

N1, N2, N3 = stage 3 - regional metastasis

M1 = stage 4 - distant metastasis

19

What are two examples of cancers that have their own unique staging system?

Lymphoma

Colorectal cancer

20

What is the unique staging system for lymphoma?

Ann Arbor system

21

What is the Ann Arbor staging system for lymphoma?

Stage 1 - lymphoma in a single node region

Stage 2 - lymphoma in two separate regions, one side of diaphragm

Stage 3 - lymphoma in two separate regions, both sides of diaphragm

Stage 4 - involvement of extra-lymphatic organ e.g. bone marrow

22

What is the unique staging system for colorectal cancer?

Dukes staging system

23

What is the Dukes staging system for colorectal cancer?

Stage A - invasion into but not through bowel wall

Stage B - invasion through bowel wall

Stage C - involvement of lymph nodes

Stage D - distant metastases

24

How does the stage of a cancer relate to the outcome?

Stage correlates with outcome
higher stage means poorer outcome - more deaths, earlier on

25

What is the difference between regional and distal metastases?

Local involves lymphatics only

Distant also involves blood circulation
more severe

26

What is the grade of a tumour based on?

The degree of differentiation of the neoplasm

27

What are the different grades of a tumour? What do they each mean?

G1 - well-differentiated

G2 - moderately differentiated

G3 - poorly differentiated

G4 - undifferentiated, anaplastic - doesn't resemble any tissue

28

Which cancers is the G1 - G4 grading system used for?

Squamous cell carcinoma

Colorectal carcinoma

29

Which type of cancer has its own unique grading system? What is the grading system called?

Breast cancer
Blood-richardson system

30

What is the Bloom-richardson grading system for cancer?

Give points based on presence of
-tubules
-mitotic figures
-nuclear pleomorphism