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Flashcards in Intro to pathology Deck (60)
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1

What is disease?

Consequence of failed homeostasis
Gives morphological and functional disturbances
Lead to an identifiable group of symptoms and signs

2

What causes disease?

Intrinsic abnormalities
e.g. genetic mutations

External factors
e.g. microbial infection

3

What is pathology?

Study of disease and cellular dysfunction

4

What are the pathology disciplines?

Chemical pathology
study disturbances of metabolic processes

Haematology
study disturbances of cellular and coagulable components

Cellular pathology

Immunology
study of diseases of immune system

Microbiology
study of infectious diseases

5

What is cellular pathology?

The macroscopic and microscopic assessment of cells, tissues, organs

6

What is histopathology?

Looking at sections of tissue under a microscope

7

What are some examples of tissue sections looked at in histopathology?

Core biopsy
Cancer resection specimen
Excised skin lesion

8

What is cytopathology?

Cells are scraped off, sucked out
From lesion, organ, body fluid
Cells are disaggregated
Looked at under microscope

9

What are the advantages of histopathology?

Can assess cellular architecture

Can differentiate in situ from invasive disease

Can provide info on grade of tumour, stage of tumour, completeness of excision

Is therapeutic as well as diagnostic, because are removing lesion, cancerous cells etc.

10

What are the advantages of cytopathology?

Faster

Cheaper

Minimally invasive, safe

Can be used for cells in fluids

11

What are the disadvantages of cytopathology?

Higher inadequate errors

Error rates

12

What are some examples of specimens looked at in cytopathology?

Fine needle aspirates of breast, thyroid, lungs

Effusions

Sputum, urine

Cervical smears

13

What is neuropathology?

Cellular pathology
confined to brain, spinal cord, nerves, muscle

14

What is forensic pathology?

Medicolegal investigation of suspicious or criminal deaths

15

What are the uses of cytopathology?

Useful to confirm/exclude
cancer/dysplasia
before making other diagnoses

16

What is paediatric pathology?

Examine samples from children

17

What are the stages involved to prepare a slide in microscopy?

fixation
cut up
embedding
blocking
microtomy
staining
mounting

18

What is fixation?

Keep tissue in formalin solution
for 24-48 hours

19

What is the purpose of fixation?

To block tissue autolysis
by inactivating enzymes, denaturing proteins

Also to prevent bacterial growth

And to harden the tissue

20

Why does tissue autolysis occur?

Lack of blood supply to tissue

21

What does tissue autolysis result in?

Loss of cellular architecture

22

What is cutting up?

Tissue is cut up into small pieces
put into a cassette
has holes in the lid
put into racks of formalin
holes allow formalin to enter and bathe tissue

23

What is embedding?

Remove water from tissue using alcohol in a vaccuum
replace alcohol with xylene, because xylene mixes with wax
replace xylene with molten paraffin wax
will penetrate cells

24

What is the purpose of embedding?

To harden the tissue
so it can be cut into thin slices

25

What is blocking?

Take tissue out of casette
put into metal block
fill with paraffin wax
body of cassette placed on top
wax allowed to harden
metal tray removed

26

What is microtomy?

Use microtome to cut thin sections from block
floated on water bath
picked up on microscope slide

27

What is the purpose of microtomy?

Cut tissue into thin sections
so can see through them with microscope

28

What is staining?

Use haematoxylin + eosin
haematoxylin stains nulcei purple
eosin stains cytoplasm and connective tissue pink

29

What is the purpose of staining?

To allow the tissue to be seen under the microscope

30

What is mounting?

Apply mounting medium to slide
put coverslip on top
mounting medium dries, hardens
attaching tissue to coverslip