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Flashcards in Neoplasia Deck (70)
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1

What is a neoplasm?

an abnormal growth of cells that persists after initial stimulation is removed

2

What is a malignant neoplasm?
What is a benign neoplasm?

- it invades surrounding tissues and has potential to grow to distant sites (a cancer)
- it remains localised and will not spread to other sites

3

What is a tumour

a clinically detectable lump or swelling

4

What is dysplasia?

a premalignant state where cells have disordered tissue organisation but not yet neoplastic- it is reversible (unlike neoplasms which are irreversible)

5

Give an example of a nonneoplastic tumour?

haematoma
abcess

6

Is neoplasia reversible?

no never :(

7

Describe the microscopic appearance of a benign vs maligant tumour?

benign: grow in confined area, have a pushing but defined outer margin, well differentiated (look like parent tissue)

malignant: irregular outer margin and shape and may show areas of necrosis and ulceration (if on surface), can be very well or very poorly differentiated

8

Describe the microscopic appearance of cells with poor differentiation (do not resemble parent tissue)

- increasing nuclear size
- decreasing cytoplasmic space
- more mitotic figures (mercedes benz sign)
- irregular shapes and sizes (pleomorphism)

9

What is the difference in appearance and prognosis or high vs low grade cancers?

high grade= poorly differentiated and worse prognosis
low grade= good differentiation and better prognosis

10

can dysplasia be asessed by level of differentiation?

yes - CIN1 to CIN3

11

What genes need to be mutated for a neoplasm to arise?

- a tumor suppressor gene needs to be inactivated
or
- a proto- onco gene needs to be mutated to an oncogene (activated)

12

What is the difference between an initiator and a promotor?

initiator: substance that causes mutations - e.g.: smoking

promotor: substance that causes cell proliferation and so you get an expanded population of cells

13

How does a cancer arise/progress over time?
What 4 classes of regulatory genes are affected by these mutations?

- Stepwise accumulation of complimentary mutations over time.
1) Proto-oncogenes - mutated to oncogenes and encode oncoproteins which promote cell growth in absence of growth promoting signals (gain of function mutations)
2) Tumour supressor genes - normally stop cell proliferation, mutations required to both alleles to cause loss of function (failure of growth inhibition)
3) Apoptosis regulating genes - may lead to enhanced survival of cells
4) DNA repair genes - loss of function mutations, inability to recognise and repair non-lethal genetic damage.

14

What features of a neoplasm does the new naming system take account of?

origin, benign or malignant, type of tissue formed and morphology

15

What tissue is affected if the prefix is:
- leiomyo
- osteo
- fibro
- chondro
- lipo
- glio
- neuro
- neurofibro

- smooth muscle
- bone
- fibrous tissue
- cartilage
- fat
- glial cells
- neurones
- nerve sheaths

16

What is the suffix for a benign neoplasm?

- oma

17

What is the name for a benign neoplasm of epethilia?

papilloma

18

What is an adenoma?

benign neoplasm of a gland

19

What is the name for a malignant epithilal neoplasm?

carcinoma

20

What is the name for a malignant neoplasm of a gland?

adenocarcinoma

21

when is the suffix '-sarcoma' used?

for a malignancy of connective tissue (chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma)

22

What is the difference between a leukaemia and a lymphoma?

leukaemia is malignancy of blood forming cells in bone marrow
lymphoma is malignancy of lymphocytes, mainly affecting lymph nodes

23

What is a myeloma?

malignancy of plasma cells

24

Where do germ line neoplasms arise?

from pluripotent cells of testis or ovaries

25

What is a blastoma?

a malignant neoplasm of immature precursor cells, usually occurring in children

26

What is a burkitt lymphoma?

- B cell lymphoma associated with EBV and malaria, most common in africa

27

What is a ewings sarcoma?

malignant tumour of bone, that usually presents in childhood/ adolescence

28

What is hodgkins lymphoma?

a malignant lyphocyte neoplasm characterised by presence of reed- sternberg cells. It is less common and often less aggressive than non hodgkins lymphoma

29

What is kaposi's sarcoma?

a malignant neoplasm derived from vascular endothilium, commonly associated with AIDS and herpes virus 8- presents with red patches

30

What is a tetroma?

a neoplasm of germline origin that forms from ecto, meso or endoderm in embryological development. They most commonly occur in gonads and can have hair and teeth ect