Know the most common cancer and most common cancer deaths for men and women
Describe the effects of tobacco and nutrition on cancer risk
That stinky tobacco is linked to lots of wonderful stuff,
2nd hand smoke contains 4,000 lovely chemicals, 5% cause cancer.
Nutrition & Cancer
High Fat diet MAY increase risk
Obesity will increase overall risk.
Lose the weight ...decreases risk
High Fiber MAY Decrease risk of COLON cancer
Alcohol Increases risk of liver, stomach, esophagus
Due to Decrease in liver metabolism.
GET OFF THE SAUCE
Antioxidants A,C,E, beta carotene MAY help.
HIGH doses of Beta Carotene MAY Increase risk
Differentiate between benign and malignant growths
Understand the rules for naming cancers
-OMA for BENIGN tumor
CarcinOMA: malignant tumor of epithelial origin
With any good rule, comes those pesky exceptions….
Lymphoma, hepatoma, and melanomas are all HIGHLY malignant
Leukemia is malignant white blood cells.
Proto Oncogenes are NORMAL genes, code for proteins the help regulate cell growth & differentiation
THEN those pesky mutations come along
Oncogenes happen when genetic mutations alter their activity-get excess proliferation→
Growth Factor receptor
Cytoplasmic Signaling Pathways
Know the effects of tumor suppressor genes
When one person inherits a copy of the defective gene, much more likely to DEVELOP CANCER
Discuss the process of metastasis
Basically, cells find a way into bloodstream or lymph, pack their bags, and set up camp somewhere downstream.
Keep a stream in mind, downstream is usually where new cancer will pop up
Describe TNM staging
T: 1→ 4 means larger and/or greater extent of primary tumor
N: 1 → 3 means either NO involvement of lymph nodes, to involvement of regional lymph nodes/extent of spread
M: 0-1 Either means NO metastasis or 1 means Metastasis present