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Flashcards in Neoplasia Deck (8)
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1

Know the most common cancer and most common cancer deaths for men and women

2

  Describe the effects of tobacco and nutrition on cancer risk

That stinky tobacco is linked to lots of wonderful stuff, 

Lung

Pancreas

Bladder

KIdney

Mouth

Esophagus

Cervix

2nd hand smoke contains 4,000 lovely chemicals, 5% cause cancer.

Nutrition & Cancer

High Fat diet MAY increase risk

Obesity will increase overall risk.

Lose the weight ...decreases risk

High Fiber MAY Decrease risk of COLON cancer

Alcohol Increases risk of liver, stomach, esophagus

Due to Decrease in liver metabolism.

GET OFF THE SAUCE

Antioxidants A,C,E, beta carotene MAY help. 

HIGH doses of Beta Carotene MAY Increase risk

3

Differentiate between benign and malignant growths

4

Understand the rules for naming cancers

-OMA for BENIGN tumor

CarcinOMA: malignant tumor of epithelial origin

With any good rule, comes those pesky exceptions….

Lymphoma, hepatoma, and melanomas are all HIGHLY malignant

Leukemia is malignant white blood cells.

5

Differentiate between

proto-oncogenes

&

oncogenes

Proto Oncogenes are NORMAL genes, code for proteins the help regulate cell growth & differentiation 

THEN those pesky mutations come along

Oncogenes happen when genetic mutations alter their activity-get excess proliferation→

Growth Factor

Growth Factor receptor

Cytoplasmic Signaling Pathways

Transcription Factors

6

 Know the effects of tumor suppressor genes

When one person inherits a copy of the defective gene, much more likely to DEVELOP CANCER

7

 Discuss the process of metastasis

Basically, cells find a way into bloodstream or lymph, pack their bags, and set up camp somewhere downstream.

Keep a stream in mind, downstream is usually where new cancer will pop up

8

 Describe TNM staging

T: 1→ 4 means larger and/or greater extent of primary tumor

N: 1 → 3 means either NO involvement of lymph nodes, to involvement of regional lymph nodes/extent of spread

M: 0-1 Either means NO metastasis or 1 means Metastasis present