Flashcards in Nephrology Deck (10):
Muscarinic antagonist , mainly act on bladder(M3)
Muscarinic agonist, mainly act on bladder (M3)
alpha blockers for overflow incontinence
mainly act on the bladder sphincter (a1)
defect in NA-K-Cl transporter in thick ascending loop ---> decreased reabsorption of those ions and abolishment of the positive lumen potential created by potassium transport ---> decreased calcium and magnesium transport
- Also abolishes the hypertonicity of the renal medulla leading to decreased water reabsoprtion --->hypovolemia
- Increased sodium to the distal tubule leads to compensatory mechanism which increases potassium loss ---> hypokalemia which the alpha intercalated cells try to correct at the expense of hydrogen ion loss --->metabolic alkalosis
defect in Na-cl transporter in the distal tubule
pH=6.1 + log [HCO3-] / [.03 x PaCO2]
Hyperkalemia due to non-selective beta blockers
due to action of beta 2 blocking which inhibits the formation of cAMP leading to decreased Na-K pump activity and increased extracellular potassium.
- Especially harmful in patients with failing kidneys
due to inhibition of local prostaglandin synthesis, reducing renin and aldosterone secretion.