Nephrology Flashcards Preview

Internal Medicine > Nephrology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nephrology Deck (10):
1

Oxybutynin

Muscarinic antagonist , mainly act on bladder(M3)

2

Bethenacol

Muscarinic agonist, mainly act on bladder (M3)

3

alpha blockers for overflow incontinence

mainly act on the bladder sphincter (a1)

4

Bartter syndrome

defect in NA-K-Cl transporter in thick ascending loop ---> decreased reabsorption of those ions and abolishment of the positive lumen potential created by potassium transport ---> decreased calcium and magnesium transport
- Also abolishes the hypertonicity of the renal medulla leading to decreased water reabsoprtion --->hypovolemia
- Increased sodium to the distal tubule leads to compensatory mechanism which increases potassium loss ---> hypokalemia which the alpha intercalated cells try to correct at the expense of hydrogen ion loss --->metabolic alkalosis

5

Gitleman syndrome

defect in Na-cl transporter in the distal tubule

6

Hendleson-Hasselbach equation

pH=6.1 + log [HCO3-] / [.03 x PaCO2]

7

Amiloride

potassium-sparing diuretic

8

Hyperkalemia due to non-selective beta blockers

due to action of beta 2 blocking which inhibits the formation of cAMP leading to decreased Na-K pump activity and increased extracellular potassium.
- Especially harmful in patients with failing kidneys

9

NSAIDS

due to inhibition of local prostaglandin synthesis, reducing renin and aldosterone secretion.

10

Hepatorenal syndrome

liver cirrhosis ---> increased NO production due to portal HTN ---> systemic vasodilation and hypotension ---> renal hypoperfusion ---> activation of RAAS ---> water and sodium retention and volume overload
- Nonresponsive to volume replacement.