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Flashcards in Nerve Cells Deck (41)

What are the 4 lobes of the cerebrum? Where are they located

Frontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe and temporal lobe


What cells are lost in Parkinsons disease

In the midbrain there is an area called the substantia nigra. In here there are cells found that are called dopaminergic neurons. Parkinson's disease results in the loss of these neurons


Where is the grey matter and white matter? What do they comprise of

Grey matter is the cell bodies and white matter is the axons. In the brain grey matter is outside whereas in the spinal cord grey matter is inside


How many layers of cells are there in the cerebral cortex



Define those layers

Layer 1 is at the top. It has very low density of cells. This is the area where the axon tracks are traveling.

II is external granular layer, III is external pyramidal cell layer, IV is internal granular layer, V is ganglionic layer, VI is multiform (polymorphic) cell layer.


How do you identify the layer V of the cerebral cortex

Identify the large pyramidal cells


What are parenchymal cells

They are multi polar neurons, they have multiple processes coming out of them, perhaps making connection to many neurons both from the dendrites and the axons.


How do you identify cerebellum

Branched structure from low zoomed picture


What are the layers of the cerebellum

Molecular, purkinje and granular


What cells are found in the molecular layer

Stellate and Basket cells


How do you differentiate the dorsal and ventral horn

From the blood vessel coming out of the ventral horn.

Also know how to identify the central canal


What is found in the ventral horn

Cell bodies and axons of the motor neurons that make choline acetyltransferase


What does the motor neurons have that makes them particularly easy to identify in staining methods

They have nissle substance. The staining method used stain rRNA so staining the ribosomes and the nucleolus


What happens in ALS

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Patients can think, process and recall information fine but they cannot correctly move due to diseased motor neurons.


Describe dendrons, cell body, axons, synapses

Dendrons are Input, cell body is integration, axons are conductors and synapses are output


What are the 3 types of neurons

Pyramidal neurons which are interneurons, motor neurons which only transmit signals after receiving them and then sensory neurons that only detect signal


What are glia cells of the CNS

Glia cells are supporting cells of the CNS

1. Astrocytes
2. Ependyma
3. Microglial cells
4. Oligodendrocytes


What are the functions of astrocytes

1) Supportive (in a skeletal sense)
2) Insulating, particularly with regard to synapses
3) Electrolyte balance, particularly regarding K+ ions
4) pH balance of extracellular milieu
5) Sequestration of neurotransmitters
6) Communicate with capillary endothelial cells
7) Interactions with immune system
8) Phagocytosis of extracellular debris
9) Induce blood brain barrier


What are the types of astorcyte

1. Fibrous astrcytes
2. Protoplasmic astorcytes


What is the blood brain barrier

foot processes of astrocytes induce endothelial cells to form tight junctions


What are the 3 layers

1. Dura Mater - highly dense connective tissue
2. Arachnoid mater
3. Pia Mater - very very thin layer of connective tissue


Where does the capillaries and the csf runs in the brain

In subarachnoid space


What makes csf

Choroid plexus cells


Know the ventricular system

The csf is also present here


What comprises in the ventral root of the spinal cord

The motor neurons have their axons coming out of the spinal cord and then joining the muscles


What does dorsal root has

Sensory neurons


Where does the sympathetic chain and the sympathetic ganglion reside?

What is their function

Sympathetic chain runs along the spinal cord. They form the sympathetic system


What is the function of sympathetic and parasympathetic system

Sympathetic is involved in fight or flight reponse

Parasympathetic is involved in rest and digest


When do both of the system make their synaptic contacts

Sympathetic neurons send their axons to the ganglions in the sympathetic chain system, which then send their axons to the motors or to the organs.

Parasympathetic neurons have larger axons, makes synaptic contacts with other ganglions which then connect their axons to the desired tissues or organs like the stomach

Para do not innervate in the sympathetic chain system (do not have synapses in this region)


Where does the sympathetic ganglions make their synaptic contacts with

In the brain and the between the post synaptic ganglions located in the ganglions. This is different from DRGs. (dorsal root ganglions)

The synapses are in the ganglions (in the swellings)


Where is the enteric nervous system found

In the gut


Function of submucosal plexus and myenteric plexus

Submucosal is responsible for glandular secretions and for sensing pH whereas the myenteric plexus is associated with controlling the smooth muscles of the gut

Myenteric is at the inside


Where are the sensory nerves located

At the dorsal root ganglion just outside the spinal cord.

Ganglion is basically a swelling


How are DRG and sympathetic nervous system ganglions different

DRGs do not form synapses at the ganglions but instead they make synapses at the brain and at the target organs


What are DRGs surrounded by

Satellite cells, they are quite small surround the DRGs all over


What is a peripheral nerve

Ventral roots of the spinal cord consists of the axons of the nerves that form the peripheral nerve


Difference in the function of schwann cells and oligo

Olio can myelinate mutliple axons whereas schwann can only mylienate 1 axon


What are the 3 layers in the peripheral nerves

The myelinated axons are surrounded by endoneurium, a group of them is surrounded by perineurium and all of them are surrounded by epineurium


What happens in Charcot Marie Tooth Disease

Myelins sheaths are damaged leading to a damaged neurons


Wallerian degneration

A mechanism of rapid axon degenration. it is physiological


What happens in neuropathy

Neuropathy in daibetes is assoicated with the loss of peripheral nerves which, in case if their is trauma to the foot, can lead to gangerence if undetected which can then result in the treatment involving foot amputation