Nerve Palsies of the Limbs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nerve Palsies of the Limbs Deck (24):
1

What is Hilton's law?

Give a clinical example of why this is important

The nerves crossing a joint supply the muscles acting on it and the joint itself

May supply 2 joints e.g. hip and knee supplied by femoral, sciatic and obturator nerves ->

HIP DISEASE MAY GIVE RISE TO KNEE PAIN

2

Name 3 nerves that supply the hip joint

Obturator nerve (predominantly)

Femoral nerve

Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve

3

What is a myotome?

Group of muscles supplied by one segment of spinal cord

4

Give a pneumonic to remember the development of the brachial plexus from roots

Rob = Roots
Trenson = Trunks
Drinks = Divisions
Cold = Cords
Beer = Branches

5

What are the roots of the radial nerve?

C5-T1

6

The radial nerve enters the forearm by passing between which two mucles?

Brachioradialis and brachialis

(posterior interosseous branch of radial nerve passes between 2 planes of supinator)

7

What 2 locations are the radial nerve at risk of damage?

Spiral grrove of humerus

Lateral intermuscular septum

8

What deficit occurs in radial nerve damage?

Motor = wrist drop (extensors)

Sensory = 1st web space dorsally
-Dorsum of hand, web between thumb and index and middle finger

9

What are the roots of the median nerve?

C7, 8 and T1

10

How does the median nerve enter the forearm?

By passing between the two heads of pronator teres

11

What is the clinical significance of struther's ligament?

Its clinical significance arises from the fact that the median nerve and brachial artery may pass through the "arch" formed by the process and ligament over the humeral body. Within this space the nerve may be compressed leading to supracondylar process syndrome.

12

What are the roots of the ulnar nerve?

C7-T1

13

What is the deficit of ulnar nerve damage?

Motor = claw hand, hypothenar and 1st dorsal interosseous wasting

Sensory = little finger

14

Where does the lumbar plexus lie?

On the surface of quadratus lumborum and within body of posts muscle

15

What major nerves about the hip do not exit the pelvis by the sciatic foramen?

Genitofemoral
Ilioinguinal
Femoral
Lateral femoral cutaneous
Obturator nerves

16

What are the roots of the femoral nerve?

L2-4

17

The femoral nerve terminates in a long fine sensory branch called the saphenous nerve.

Describe the route of this nerve

Accompanies femoral artery in subsartorial canal of thigh and long saphenous vein in lower leg and in front of medial malleolus at ankle to supply breat toe

18

The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve lies on the surface of which muscle?

Iliacus muscle

(usually exits pelvis under lateral end of inguinal ligament but variable)

19

What does the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve supply?

What occurs when it is compressed?

Purely sensory to lateral aspect of thigh

Compression causes meralgia parasthetica

20

What are the roots of the sciatic nerve?

L4-S3

21

What does the sciatic nerve supply?

Hamstring muscles in thigh (posterior) and part of adductor magnus and all lower leg and foot muscles via terminal branches

22

What can cause damage to sciatic nerve?

At risk from posterior dislocation of hip, intra-muscular injections and during surgery

23

What is the most commonly injured nerve in lower limb?

What deficit does it cause?

Common fibular nerve

Foot drop and slapping gait

24

Where is the common fibular nerve at risk?

Passes around lateral aspect of neck of fibula