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Flashcards in Paediatric - The Big 3 Deck (23):

What is the incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip?

(northern europe, eastern europe, african neonates, apaches and navajos, inuits)

NE: 0.7-2.2 per 1000
Eastern EU: 28.7 per 1000
African neonates: 0
Apaches and navajos: 5%
Inuits: 25%


What is the incidence of develoopmental dysplasia of the hip?

(M:F, Left: Right hip)

Girls 6:1
Left hip 3:1


An increased incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip is seen in who?

First born
Breech presentation
Family history
Other lower limb deformities
Increased weight


What are the clinical features of developmental dysplasia of the hip?

Ortolani's sign
Barlow's sign
Piston motion sign
Hamstring sign


What percentage of DDH cases are picked up by examination?

Only 40%


What is Ortolani's sign?

It relocates the dislocation of the hip joint that has just been elicited by the Barlow maneuver.

It is performed by an examiner first flexing the hips and knees of a supine infant to 90 degrees, then with the examiner's index fingers placing anterior pressure on the greater trochanters, gently and smoothly abducting the infant's legs using the examiner's thumbs. A positive sign is a distinctive 'clunk' which can be heard and felt as the femoral head relocates anteriorly into the acetabulum

Specifically, this tests for posterior dislocation of the hip.


What is Barlow's sign?

The maneuver is easily performed by adducting the hip (bringing the thigh towards the midline) while applying light pressure on the knee, directing the force posteriorly.

If the hip is dislocatable - that is, if the hip can be popped out of socket with this maneuver - the test is considered positive. The Ortolani maneuver is then used, to confirm the positive finding (i.e., that the hip actually dislocated).


At what age on average does the head of the femur ossify?

Not until the child is at least 3 months old


Describe the treatments for DDH at different ages

( 1yr, >1yr, >18 months, >6yrs, >10yrs)

-Open reduction and capsule reefing

-Open reduction with femoral shortening

-Bilateral -> leave alone

-Unilateral -> leave alone


What is the typical presentation of Perthes Disease?

Primary school age
Short stature
Knee pain on exercise
Stiff hip joint
Systemically well


What is the aetiology of Perthes disease?

Pathologically avascular necrosis of hip

Possible relationship to coagulation tendency

Possible relationship to repeated minor trauma

Familial tendency

Classically low social status


What are the 4 waldenstrom stages seen radiographically?

1) Initial stage
2) Fragmentation stage
3) Reossification stage
4) Healed stage


How do you determine prognosis in Perthes disease?

(presentation, etc)

Presentation age:
-Younger do better

Proportion of head involved

Herring grade

Radiographic "head at risk signs"

Nearer the head is to round, the better the outlook


What are the treatments for Perthes disease?

Maintain hip motion
Restrict painful activities

Consider osteotomy in selected groups of older children (>7)


What percentage of perthes disease cases are bilateral?



What is the normal presentation of SUFE?

Teenage boys (9-14)
Left groin pain 3 months
Short, hip externally rotated
Painful to weight bear
Usually overweight
20% become bilateral


What does SUFE stand for?

Slipped Upper Femoral Epiphysis


What are the 3 ways to classify of SUFE?

Acute v chronic (3 weeks)

Magnitude of slip (angle or proportion

Stable vs unstable
-Unstable = unable to weight bear (poor prognosis)
-Stable = able to weight bear (good prognosis)


How do you detect SUFE/ SCFE?

(signs, symptoms, investigation)

Pain in hip OR KNEE

Externally rotated posture and gait

Reduced internal rotation, especially in flexion

Plain x-rays
-best seen on lateral view


What is the apthology of SUFE?

SUFE is essentially a type I Salter Harris growth plate injury due to repeated trauma on a background of mechanical and probably hormonal predisposing factors.

Conditions that may predispose to SUFE include:

During growth, there is widening of the physeal plate which is particularly pronounced during a growth spurt. In addition, the axis of the physis alters during growth and moves from being horizontal, to being oblique. As the physis becomes more oblique, shear forces across the growth plate increase resulting in an increased risk of fracture and resultant slippage.


What can the outcomes of SCFE be?



Deformity (short, ext rotated, limited flexion)

Early osteoarthritis

Possibility of slip on other side

Limb length discrepancy



What is the risk of AVN in SCFE?

Stable slips have a low risk of AVN

Unstable slips have a high risk of AVN


What is a limp defined as?

Shorter stance phase (weightbearing) on the affected limb