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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (31):

Define the Somatic Nervous System

A subdivision of the peripheral nervous system, controlling body movements that are primarily conscious and voluntary.


Define the Autonomic Nervous System

A subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that controls largely involuntary processes, including: digestion, secretion by sweat glands, circulation of blood, reproductive and excretory systems, and contraction of smooth muscles.


What is the ganglion?

A functional concentration of nervous system tissue composed principally of nerve cell bodies, usually lying outside the central nervous system.


What is the brain?

A single, organized, collection of nervous tissue in an organism's head that forms the control centre of the nervous system and major sensory structures.


What is a neuron?

An electrically active cell of the nervous system responsible for controlling behaviour and body functions.


What is cephalization?

The development of an anterior head where sensory organs and nervous system tissue are concentrated.


What is a neurogenic heart?

A heart that beats under the control of signals from the nervous system.


What is white matter?

The myelinated axons that surround the grey matter of the central nervous system.


What is neurulation?

The process in vertebrates by which organogenesis begins with development of the nervous system from ectoderm.


What is Nervous Tissue?

Tissue that contains neurons, which serve as lines of communication and control between body parts.


What is Sympathetic Division?

Division of the autonomic nervous system that predominates in situations involving stress, danger, excitement, or strenuous physical activity.


What is Propagation?

In animal nervous systems, the concept that the action potential does not need further trigger events to keep going.


What is Head-Foot?

In molluscs, the region of the body that provides the major means of locomotion and contains concentrations of nervous system tissues and sense organs.


What is the Nerve Net?

A simple nervous system that coordinates responses to stimuli but has no central control organ or brain.


What is the parasympathetic division?

The division of the autonomic nervous system that predominates during quiet, low-stress, situations - such as while relaxing.


What are astrocytes?

Star-shaped glial cell that provides support to neurons in the vertebrate central nervous system.


What is the taproot system?

A root system consisting of a single main root from which lateral roots can extend; often stores starch.


What is the endomembrane system?

In eukaryotes, a collection of interrelated internal membranous sacs that divide a cell into functional and structural compartments.


What is the lymphatic system?

An accessory system of vessels and organs that helps balance the fluid content of the blood and surrounding tissues and participates in the body's defences against invading disease organisms.


What two major cell types are responsible for receiving, transmitting, and analyzing information?

Neurons and glial cells.


What are neurons bundled into in the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?

Long, slender, projections of neurons (axons) are bundled into cablelike projections called nerves that provide a pathway between different structures and the Central Nervous Sysyem.


What are networks of nerves organized into in the CNS?

Ganglia and brains.


What two levels are required for neural signalling between animal cells?

Between a single neuronal cell (neuron) and between neurons within networks or circuits.


What are the four components of neural signalling?

Reception, integration, transmission, and response.


Define Neural Signalling.

The process by which an animal responds appropriately to a stimulus.


Define Reception.

The detection of a stimulus. In signal transduction, the binding of a signal molecule with a specific receptor in a target cell.


Define Integration.

The sorting and interpretation of sensory inputs or neural messages and determination of the appropriate response(s).


Define Transmission.

The sending of a message along a neuron to another neuron or to a muscle or gland.


Define Response.

The output or action resulting from the integration of neural messages.


What are Dendrites?

The branched extension of the nerve cell body that receives signals from other nerve cells.


What is the cell body?

The portion of the neuron containing genetic material and cellular organelles.